Cases reported "Glioma"

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1/153. Integration of preoperative and intraoperative functional brain mapping in a frameless stereotactic environment for lesions near eloquent cortex. Technical note.

    The authors present a method of incorporating preoperative noninvasive functional brain mapping data into the frameless stereotactic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging dataset used for image-guided resection of brain lesions located near eloquent cortex. They report the use of functional (f)MR imaging and magnetic source (MS) imaging for preoperative mapping of eloquent cortex in difficult cases of brain tumor resection such as those in which there are large expansive masses or in which reoperations are required and the anatomy is distorted from prior treatments. To correlate methods of preoperative and intraoperative mapping localization directly, the authors have developed techniques of importing preoperative MS and fMR imaging data into an image-guided frameless stereotactic computer workstation. The data appear as a seamless overlay on the same preoperative volumetric MR imaging dataset used for stereotactic guidance during the operation. Intraoperatively identified functional locations mapped by cortical stimulation are recorded as digitally registered points. This approach should prove useful in assessing the accuracy and reliability of various preoperative functional brain mapping techniques.
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2/153. pulmonary edema after resection of a fourth ventricle tumor: possible evidence for a medulla-mediated mechanism.

    A well-recognized fact is that some patients may have development of pulmonary edema in association with disorders of the central nervous system. The origin of this phenomenon, known as neurogenic pulmonary edema, is unclear but may result, in part, from select pulmonary venoconstriction modulated by autonomic outflow from the medulla oblongata. We describe a 21-year-old man who had development of pulmonary edema in association with surgical resection of a brain tumor that was close to the medulla. Other than the possibility of medullary dysfunction, which could have occurred after surgical manipulation, no other risk factor for pulmonary edema was identified. Of note, the patient's blood pressure remained normal throughout the perioperative period, and no fluid overload or primary cardiac dysfunction was evident. This case supports the theory that the medulla is an important anatomic site of origin for neurogenic pulmonary edema and that alterations in medullary function can induce pulmonary edema in humans, independent of systemic hypertension.
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3/153. Transnasal endoscopic repair of congenital defects of the skull base in children.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine imaging findings and methods of endoscopic treatment of congenital skull base defects in children. DESIGN: Retrospective study and case series. SETTING: Academic tertiary care center. patients: Four patients (aged 12 and 14 months and 8 and 13 years) were included from 1995 to 1997. Three presented with a nasal glioma, which was recurrent in 1 case. The fourth patient presented with bacterial meningitis due to a spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to locate the defect of the skull base. INTERVENTION: Transnasal endoscopic resection of the glioma or the meningocele, with immediate repair of the skull base defects using free mucosal flaps and/or pediculized mucosal flaps and/or conchal cartilage together with fibrin glue and nasal packing during a 3-week period. RESULTS: None of the 4 patients has experienced recurrent cerebrospinal fluid leaks or postoperative meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: The transnasal endoscopic repair of congenital meningoceles is a reliable technique in select pediatric patients. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide information that can be used to help the surgical procedure.
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4/153. Intraoperative validation of functional magnetic resonance imaging and cortical reorganization patterns in patients with brain tumors involving the primary motor cortex.

    OBJECT: The purpose of the present study was to compare the results of functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging with those of intraoperative cortical stimulation in patients who harbored tumors close to or involving the primary motor area and to assess the usefulness of fMR imaging in the objective evaluation of motor function as part of the surgical strategy in the treatment of these patients. methods: A total of 11 consecutive patients, whose tumors were close to or involving the central region, underwent presurgical blood oxygen level-dependent fMR imaging while performing a motor paradigm that required them to clench and spread their hands contra- and ipsilateral to the tumor. Statistical cross-correlation functional maps covering the primary and secondary motor cortical areas were generated and overlaid onto high-resolution anatomical MR images. Intraoperative electrical cortical stimulation was performed to validate the presurgical fMR imaging findings. In nine (82%) of 11 patients, the anatomical fMR imaging localization of motor areas could be verified by intraoperative electrical cortical stimulation. In seven patients two or more activation sites were demonstrated on fMR imaging, which were considered a consequence of reorganization phenomena of the motor cortex: contralateral primary motor area (nine patients), contralateral premotor area (four patients), ipsilateral primary motor area (two patients), and ipsilateral premotor area (four patients). CONCLUSIONS: Functional MR imaging can be used to perform objective evaluation of motor function and surgical planning in patients who harbor lesions near or involving the primary motor cortex. Correlation between fMR imaging findings and the results of direct electrical brain stimulation is high, although not 100%. Based on their study, the authors believe that cortical reorganization patterns of motor areas might explain the differences in motor function and the diversity of postoperative motor function among patients with central tumors.
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5/153. Periictal diffusion-weighted imaging in a case of lesional epilepsy.

    PURPOSE: diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been used for the early diagnosis of acute ischemic lesions in humans and in animal models of focal status epilepticus. We hypothesized that DWI may be a sensitive, noninvasive tool for the localization of the epileptogenic area during the periictal period. methods: A periictal DWI study was performed on a 35-year-old patient during focal status epilepticus with repetitive prolonged focal motor seizures originating from a lesion in the right frontal lobe. DWI results were analyzed visually and by calculating apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. RESULTS: On DWI, a single area of signal increase (decrease in ADC) was found in the region of focal electrocorticographic seizures that was mapped intraoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Ictal/postictal DWI may be a useful technique for seizure localization in patients with lesional epilepsy.
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6/153. Effectiveness of spray application of ACNU in the local control of malignant gliomas: report of two cases.

    Malignant gliomas encompassing the eloquent areas cannot be removed totally and their surgical extirpation is followed by adjuvant therapy for the residual tumor. Recently, we have employed fibrin glue as a vehicle for the sustained release of ACNU (nimustine hydrochloride) by spray application following subtotal tumor removal in two patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. Follow-up MRI at six months demonstrated no neuroradiological evidence of tumor recurrence in the site of operation. We conclude, this novel mode of intra-operative local chemotherapy by spray application of fibrin glue containing antineoplastic agent is effective in the control of residual tumor progression and may also prevent local recurrence and hence suggests its possible role as an adjuvant therapy in the management of malignant gliomas.
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ranking = 0.0625
keywords = operative
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7/153. Quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of focal brain lesions.

    The diagnostic value of single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2 T, stimulated echo acquisition mode, TR = 6,000 ms, TE = 20 ms, 4-5 mL volumes-of-interest) was assessed for a differentiation of focal brain lesions of unknown etiology in 17 patients 1-14 years of age. Absolute metabolite concentrations were compared with age-matched control subjects and an individual control region. Most of the brain tumors were characterized by strongly reduced total N-acetylaspartyl compounds and marked increases of myo-inositol and choline-containing compounds, consistent with a lack of neuroaxonal tissue and a proliferation of glial cells. Lactate was elevated in only four patients. When using this pattern for a metabolic discrimination of brain tumors from other focal lesions, proton spectroscopy correctly identified 14 of 17 abnormalities, as confirmed by histologic examination after neurosurgical intervention. One false-positive tumor diagnosis was a severe reactive gliosis mimicking a typical tumor spectrum. Two inconclusive cases comprised an astrocytoma with moderately elevated myo-inositol but reduced choline-containing compounds and a patient with an abscess leading to a marked reduction of all metabolites but strong contributions from mobile lipids. In summary, quantitative proton spectroscopy has considerable clinical value for preoperative characterization of focal brain lesions.
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keywords = operative
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8/153. The insular lobe: physiopathological and surgical considerations.

    OBJECTIVE: Surgery of the insula represents a technical challenge, because of the proximity of the internal capsule to the lenticulostriate arteries and the lack of certainty concerning its functionality. Using intraoperative direct cerebral stimulation, combined with neuronavigation, the authors operated on 12 insular gliomas. On the basis of this experience, the physiopathological and surgical implications are discussed. methods: A low-grade insular glioma, revealed by seizures, was diagnosed in 12 right-handed patients with a normal neurological status. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed that, according to Yasargil's classification system, three patients harbored Type 3 lesions and nine patients had Type 5 lesions (10 tumors on the right side and 2 on the left dominant side). All patients underwent surgery using direct cerebral stimulation, under general anesthesia in nine patients (motor mapping) and under local anesthesia in three patients (sensorimotor and language mapping). ultrasonography and/or neuronavigation was used in all cases. Preoperative angio-computed tomographic scanning showed the lenticulostriate arteries in two patients. RESULTS: The internal capsule was systematically detected, and the language areas were identified within the left insula in the awake patients. The lenticulostriate arteries were seen in two patients. Seven patients presented an immediate postoperative deficit; six of them recovered completely within 3 months. Four resections were total, six were subtotal, and two were partial (left insula). CONCLUSION: The use of intraoperative direct cerebral stimulation and neuronavigation allows surgery of the insula with minimization of the risk of sequelae, but its use is still limited with regard to the dominant hemisphere, owing to the essential role of this structure in language.
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ranking = 0.3125
keywords = operative
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9/153. Distant wounded glioma syndrome: report of two cases.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We describe two cases of distant wounded glioma syndrome complicating surgical resection of multifocal glioblastoma multiforme. This clinical entity was previously described as a local phenomenon resulting in postoperative hemorrhaging within the cavity of partially resected tumors. These cases are unique, in that the postoperative hemorrhaging occurred within distant tumor nodules after gross total resection of the primary lesion. CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: Two middle-aged men without known risk factors for postoperative hemorrhaging presented with multifocal glioblastoma multiforme. Each underwent surgical resection of the deficit-producing lesion and developed hemorrhage at distant tumor sites that were not directly manipulated during the surgical procedures. The distant hemorrhage caused new neurological deficits, with severe morbidity. CONCLUSION: We postulate that distant wounded glioma syndrome is a distinct clinical entity that causes remote postoperative hemorrhaging and that tumor-induced coagulopathy triggered by surgery seems to create a hypocoagulable state that is most concentrated within brain tissue. Because of their rich vascularity, these distant tumor nodules are more susceptible to hemorrhage, resulting from coagulation changes after tumor resection, than are other sites. They also exhibit increased blood flow after resection of a large mass, because of autoregulatory dysfunction induced by peritumoral edema, increasing the likelihood of hemorrhage at these sites.
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10/153. Cerebral heterotopia appearing as an extranasal polyp.

    Cerebral heterotopia represents a rare tumorlike lesion related in its development to the encephaloceles but differing from these by non-connection to the cranial cavity. We describe an unusual case of cerebral heterotopia appearing as a pedunculated polyp on the upper lip of a newborn. As the distinction between encephaloceles and cerebral heterotopias is based on the correlation of radiologic and clinical findings, the surgical treatment of tumorlike lesions of the nasal and pharyngeal region in children requires a careful preoperative evaluation of their possible connection to the cranial cavity.
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