Cases reported "Glioma"

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1/155. Secondary glioblastoma remarkably reduced by steroid administration after anaplastic transformation from gliomatosis cerebri--case report.

    A 45-year-old female presented with gliomatosis cerebri manifesting as hemiballismus-like involuntary movement in the arm, motor weakness in the leg, and hypesthesia in her left side. Computed tomography showed only diffuse swelling of the right cerebral hemisphere, but T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed a diffuse lesion spreading from the right thalamus to the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes on the same side. No abnormal enhancement was recognized. cerebral angiography showed no specific finding. A right occipital lobectomy was performed to confirm the diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri. Anaplastic transformation was recognized 5 months later. The disease did not resolve with radiation or interferon administration, but steroid therapy achieved remarkably effective tumor regression. The patient died due to pneumonia. autopsy showed the features of diffuse glioblastoma. Steroid therapy may be an effective treatment for gliomatosis cerebri before the terminal stage.
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keywords = radiation
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2/155. Gliomatosis cerebri with secondary glioblastoma formation: report of two cases.

    The clinicopathological features of two cases of gliomatosis cerebri associated with secondary glioblastoma formation are reported. In both cases, glial cells were diffusely distributed in the supra- and infratentorial regions and underlying brain structures were preserved from the onset. In spite of such diffuse distribution of neoplastic glial cells, similar to that observed in low-grade astrocytoma, in both cases the tumor underwent complete remission after radiotherapy. However, the tumor recurred as a localized glioblastoma in both cases, 37 months (case 1) and 7 months (case 2) after the radiotherapy. In both cases, recurrence was accompanied by prominent dissemination of CSF. The recurrent tumors were radiation resistant, and the patients' conditions deteriorated rapidly after recurrence. The present two cases demonstrated that gliomatosis cerebri, classified among brain tumors of unknown origin by the world health organization, may transform into highly proliferative circumscribed tumors, in spite of their good response to radiotherapy. Examination of pathological features and their correlation with MRI findings may allow us to better understand the response to radiotherapy and the process of recurrence.
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keywords = radiation
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3/155. Successful chemotherapeutic treatment of diencephalic syndrome with continued tumor presence.

    A 7-month-old infant with typical features of diencephalic syndrome (DES) associated with a hypothalamic mass, most probably a glioma, was treated with chemotherapy. The tumor showed clear shrinkage, but after more than 2 years regrowth was noted. During the treatment period the child regained normal growth and became free of symptoms. As radiation therapy, especially at a young age, has significant adverse effects and a neurosurgical approach to the diencephalic region also has the potential to cause significant sequelae, a chemotherapeutic option, when it exists, is preferred. Thus, in an infant in whom a glioma is suspected to be the cause of the DES, based on the clinical picture and the neuroimaging appearance, chemotherapy should be considered the primary therapeutic modality. Even if its effect is temporary, its use is well justified. The most appropriate treatment protocol still needs to be determined.
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keywords = radiation
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4/155. Adjuvant immunotherapy for malignant brain tumors in infants and children.

    Immune deficiency of immunocompetent cells or of humoral factors are essential causes of tumor growth. The authors have investigated the transfer of immunocompetent cells - allogeneic bone marrow cell transfusion and white blood cell intracranial infusion - for the treatment of 11 malignant gliomas in infants and children as an adjuvant to surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy. Ten cases, from 3 months to 11 years, received bone marrow cell transfusion. Two medulloblastomas and 3 pontine gliomas are dead. Five cases are alive and well 37-65 months following surgery. Among these two posterior fossa neoplasms, a medulloblastoma and a glioblastoma have survived 46 and 65 months, respectively. One cerebral glioblastoma received allogeneic white blood cells infused locally into the tumor bed: it recurred 1 year following surgery, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Cytolysis of the tumor cells by sensitized lymphoid cells were demonstrated in this case. The role of immunotherapy should be limited at the present time to adjuvant therapy until its effect on tumor growth is statistically confirmed. The results so far are promising, and improvement of the immunological approach in treating malignant brain tumors is under way.
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keywords = radiation
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5/155. Treatment of refractory recurrent malignant glioma with adoptive cellular immunotherapy: a case report.

    We report the successful treatment of a patient with recurrent malignant glioma with adoptive cellular immunotherapy. The patient is a young adult with recurrent progressive disease refractory to aggressive multi-modality therapy including repetitive surgical resection, radiation, radiosurgery and chemotherapy. He received multiple courses of local administration of autologous lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells in combination with a low dose of interleukin-2 (IL-2) through an Ommaya reservoir-catheter system. The side-effects of this treatment were limited and manageable. The patient achieved a complete remission, as demonstrated by MRI and confirmed by glucose-positron emission tomography (PET) imaging 11 months after initiation of immune therapy. Twenty-six months later, the patient is still in remission with improving performance status. Adoptive cellular immunotherapy utilizing autologous LAK cells with low dose IL-2 appears to be a safe and effective therapy for a subset of patients with primary, recurrent or progressive malignant glioma following conventional therapy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = radiation
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6/155. Multiple recurrences in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the orbit: a case report and a review of the literature.

    PURPOSE: To report the onset of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the orbit 8 years after irradiation in a patient with neurofibromatosis type-1. methods: Case report of a young man with neurofibromatosis type-1 who received irradiation for presumed bilateral optic nerve and chiasmal gliomas and in whom a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor later developed. Exenteration with extirpation of the entire contents of the orbit was performed 6 times. RESULTS: Complete recurrence of the tumor occurred after each surgical procedure until the patient died of malignancy. CONCLUSIONS: Our case underscores the risk of irradiation, especially in children with neurofibromatosis type-1, and emphasizes that radiotherapy should never be given as an empirical therapy. The authors believe that irradiation and neurofibromatosis type-1 may, in combination, pose a significant risk for the development of malignancies. Clear-cut indications and a precise tissue diagnosis are desirable before the initiation of radiotherapy, particularly in the pediatric population. We recommend that if irradiation is necessary in persons with neurofibromatosis type-1, regular follow-up is imperative. In view of the hostile nature of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, early aggressive treatment appears to be the only viable alternative at present.
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ranking = 5
keywords = radiation
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7/155. Gliomatosis cerebri: intra vitam stereotactic determination in two cases and review of the literature.

    Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is an infiltrative neoplastic process that is diffusely distributed through neural structures, whose anatomical configuration remains intact. Most of the cases with GC reported in the literature were diagnosed at autopsy (101/110, 92%). We report two cases of GC in a 42-year-old woman and a 65-year-old man. The diagnosis was confirmed neuropathologically after MRI-guided stereoetactic biopsy. External radiation therapy was performed and led to a complete recovery of all clinical signs. Follow-up examinations 17 and 21 months after diagnosis showed permanent reversal of all clinical and radiological signs. MRI should be used as a primary imaging study in the evaluation of GC and for the determination of the target points for stereotactic biopsy. We discuss the aetiology, clinical manifestation, difficulties of intra vitam diagnosis, and management of this rare condition in the light of other 110 (101 postmortem and nine intra vitam) reported cases of GC in the literature.
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ranking = 1
keywords = radiation
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8/155. radiation-induced glioma presenting as diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Leptomeningeal gliomatosis is a rare and fatal disease. methods: Case report. RESULTS: We report the case of a man who was presented with severe intractable headaches, lymphocytic CSF pleocytosis, and spinal leptomeningeal enhancement on contrast MRI. Meningeal biopsy demonstrated diffuse infiltration by malignant glial cells, and symptom alleviation was achieved by CSF diversion. He later developed an enhancing thalamic tumor arising within the treatment field of a remotely irradiated pituitary adenoma. Subsequent management included chemotherapy and further radiotherapy with transient response, before death from leptomeningeal and parenchymal tumor progression 16 months after diagnosis. CONCLUSION: We report a unique case embodying two rare conditions: radiation induced glioma and leptomeningeal gliomatosis. Our patient's course is novel in that symptomatic relief was achieved with CSF diversion and a combination of chemotherapy and focal radiation allowed prolonged survival.
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ranking = 2
keywords = radiation
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9/155. Complete response of a recurrent, multicentric malignant glioma in a patient treated with phenylbutyrate.

    sodium phenylbutyrate is a biological-response modifier that acts as a dose-dependent inhibitor of glioma cell proliferation, migration, and invasiveness in vitro, possibly by inhibition of urokinase and c-myc pathways. Despite its biological activity in vitro, there have not been any prior reports of efficacy in the treatment of human malignant gliomas. We report a 44-year-old female with a recurrent, multicentric, malignant glioma who experienced a durable remission lasting more than four years. The patient initially presented with seizures caused by a biopsy-proven anaplastic astrocytoma of the frontal lobe. The patient was treated with radiation therapy and procarbazine-CCNU-vincristine (PCV). However, the tumor progressed and extended to the corpus callosum with midline shift, refractory to four cycles of continuous 72-h infusion of BCNU/Cisplatinum. Additional enhancing lesions appeared in the left frontal and left temporal lobes. The patient was started on sodium phenylbutyrate, 18 g daily in three divided oral doses, and reduced to 9 g/day and eventually to 4.5 g/day to eliminate mild, reversible side effects. Four years later, the patient has a KPS functional score of 100%. Phenylbutyrate is a well-tolerated, oral agent that shows potential for the treatment of malignant gliomas. Further studies should be considered to identify a subset of patients that have tumors sensitive to phenylbutyrate, either as a single agent or in combination with radiation therapy or other chemotherapeutic agents.
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ranking = 2
keywords = radiation
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10/155. Postirradiation necrosis of the temporal lobe presenting as a glioma. Case report.

    A patient is reported who presented with manifestations of a space-occupying lesion in the left temporal lobe thought to be a metastasis, but on radiological examination and surgical exploration appeared to be a diffuse infiltrative glioma. Some 21 months earlier he had received a course of fast neutron therapy to a carcinoma of the left parotid gland. diagnosis by microscopic examination revealed changes characteristic of delayed radiation necrosis.
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ranking = 5
keywords = radiation
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