Cases reported "Glioma"

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1/152. Molecular analysis of glioma and skin-tumour alterations in a xeroderma-pigmentosum child.

    xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare hereditary disease characterized by a very high frequency of skin tumours due to a defect in the nucleotide-excision-repair process. Some of these patients have also been reported to develop internal tumours with higher frequency than the normal population. Reported here are the clinical features and molecular analysis of an XP patient who developed multiple skin cancers as well as a thalamic glioma. Complementation analysis with recombinant retrovirus, cloning efficiency and unscheduled DNA synthesis after UV-C indicate that the patient belongs to the C group. Characterization of the p53 mutations in the 2 tumours of the patient leads to speculation on the aetiological agents involved in tumour initiation. The skin tumour is clearly induced by the presence of unrepaired UVB-induced dna damage on the non-transcribed strand of the p53 gene, while the glioma may be induced by unrepaired DNA lesions produced by free radicals.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cancer
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2/152. A distinctive glioneuronal tumor of the adult cerebrum with neuropil-like (including "rosetted") islands: report of 4 cases.

    Four examples of a novel glioneuronal neoplasm are presented. All tumors affected adults (including two males and two females aged 25-40 years) as supratentorial, cerebral hemispheric masses with associated seizure activity and, in one case, symptoms of raised intracranial pressure and progressive hemiparesis. CT scans in two cases revealed hypodense masses without calcification. MRI scans at presentation demonstrated, in all cases, solid T1-hypointense and T2-hyperintense tumors with mass effect in one instance but no edema or contrast enhancement. Only one was relatively circumscribed on neuroradiologic study. All were infiltrative in their histologic growth pattern and predominantly glial in appearance, being composed mainly of fibrillary, gemistocytic, or protoplasmic astroglial elements of WHO grade II to III. Their distinguishing feature was their content of sharply delimited, neuropil-like islands of intense synaptophysin reactivity inhabited and rimmed in rosetted fashion by cells demonstrating strong nuclear immunolabeling for the neuronal antigens NeuN and Hu. These cells included small, oligodendrocyte-like ("neurocytic") elements as well as larger, more pleomorphic forms. Two cases contained, in addition, well-differentiated neurons of medium to ganglion-cell size. Proliferative activity was observed principally within the glial compartment; two cases contained mitotic figures and exhibited relatively elevated MIB-1 indices (6.8% and 8.2%). One of the latter progressed and proved fatal at 30 months following subtotal resection and radiotherapy. The three other patients are alive at intervals of 14 to 83 months, two tumor-free and one with extensive disease associated with the appearance of enhancement on MRI. This glioneuronal tumor variant may pursue an unfavorable clinical course.
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ranking = 40.071637744016
keywords = neoplasm
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3/152. Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle: confirmatory report of a new entity.

    The term "chordoid glioma" was recently introduced to denote a circumscribed, apparently low-grade neoplasm arising in or preferentially involving the third ventricle of middle-aged women. We report biopsy and postmortem findings in a 60-year-old woman with symptoms of forgetfulness, headache, and lethargy. neuroimaging showed a contrast-enhancing third ventricular mass with obstructive hydrocephalus. The tumor was subtotally resected. Microscopically, it consisted of clusters and strands of epithelioid cells in a mucoid matrix. Its margins were remarkably discrete and showed little tendency to infiltrate surrounding brain parenchyma. The majority of neoplastic cells were glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin positive, whereas S100 protein labeled only individual cells. Stains for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and cytokeratin were nonreactive. There was no evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation or expression of estrogen and progesteron receptors. Lymphoplasmacellular infiltrates were noted throughout the lesion and at the tumor-brain interface. The MIB-1 labeling index averaged 1.5%. At present, chordoid glioma is considered a glial neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis with distinct clinicopathologic features.
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ranking = 80.143275488032
keywords = neoplasm
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4/152. Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle: immunohistochemical and molecular genetic characterization of a novel tumor entity.

    Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle was recently reported as a novel tumor entity of the central nervous system with characteristic clinical and histopathological features (Brat et al., J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 57: 283-290, 1998). Here, we report on a histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic analysis of five cases of this rare neoplasm. All tumors were immunohistochemically investigated for the expression of various differentiation antigens, the proliferation marker Ki-67, and a panel of selected proto-oncogene and tumor suppressor gene products. These studies revealed a strong expression of GFAP, vimentin, and CD34. In addition, most tumors contained small fractions of neoplastic cells immunoreactive for epithelial membrane antigen, S-100 protein, or cytokeratins. The percentage of Ki-67 positive cells was generally low (<5%). All tumors showed immunoreactivity for the epidermal growth factor receptor and schwannomin/merlin. There was no nuclear accumulation of the p53, p21 (Waf-1) and Mdm2 proteins. To examine genomic alterations associated with the development of chordoid gliomas, we screened 4 tumors by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis. No chromosomal imbalances were detected. More focussed molecular genetic analyses revealed neither aberrations of the TP53 and CDKN2A tumor suppressor genes nor amplification of the EGFR, CDK4, and MDM2 proto-oncogenes. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that chordoid glioma of the third ventricle constitutes a novel tumor entity characterized by distinct morphological and immunohistochemical features, as well as a lack of chromosomal and genetic alterations commonly found in other types of gliomas or in meningiomas.
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ranking = 40.071637744016
keywords = neoplasm
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5/152. Osteolytic extra-axial sacral myxopapillary ependymoma.

    The authors report an unusual case of sacral osteolytic myxopapillary ependymoma treated with curettage and radiotherapy. There is no evidence of recurrence 8 years after treatment. A review of the literature is presented on sacral ependymomas presenting with an osteolytic radiographic appearance (24 cases in 18 reports). The differential diagnosis with other sacral neoplasms is discussed.
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ranking = 40.071637744016
keywords = neoplasm
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6/152. Adjuvant immunotherapy for malignant brain tumors in infants and children.

    Immune deficiency of immunocompetent cells or of humoral factors are essential causes of tumor growth. The authors have investigated the transfer of immunocompetent cells - allogeneic bone marrow cell transfusion and white blood cell intracranial infusion - for the treatment of 11 malignant gliomas in infants and children as an adjuvant to surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy. Ten cases, from 3 months to 11 years, received bone marrow cell transfusion. Two medulloblastomas and 3 pontine gliomas are dead. Five cases are alive and well 37-65 months following surgery. Among these two posterior fossa neoplasms, a medulloblastoma and a glioblastoma have survived 46 and 65 months, respectively. One cerebral glioblastoma received allogeneic white blood cells infused locally into the tumor bed: it recurred 1 year following surgery, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Cytolysis of the tumor cells by sensitized lymphoid cells were demonstrated in this case. The role of immunotherapy should be limited at the present time to adjuvant therapy until its effect on tumor growth is statistically confirmed. The results so far are promising, and improvement of the immunological approach in treating malignant brain tumors is under way.
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ranking = 40.071637744016
keywords = neoplasm
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7/152. Endoscopic biopsy for tumors of the third ventricle.

    Twelve patients underwent endoscopic biopsy of a tumor involving the third ventricle. Nine patients had no significant medical history while 3 had a history of cancer. Unique characteristics of each case dictated the optimal surgical technique. Endoscopic tumor biopsy was combined with additional procedures in 9 cases; shunt insertion (3), shunt insertion with endoscopic septostomy (5), and transcallosal craniotomy (1). diagnosis was established in 11 patients (92%); 6 primary brain tumors, 3 metastatic central nervous system tumors, 1 metastatic systemic cancer, and 1 region of post-treatment gliosis. One case was aborted due to poor visualization. Therapy was directly influenced by endoscopic biopsy in 11/12 cases (92%) and craniotomy for tumor resection was avoided in 10/12 patients (83%). Of the 5 patients who underwent endoscopic septostomy, 4 required no subsequent procedures for hydrocephalus. There were no complications, and hospital stay averaged 1.78 days for patients who underwent successful endoscopic biopsy. Tumors of the third ventricle are amenable to endoscopic biopsy with excellent diagnostic yield and low morbidity. The procedure must be tailored depending upon the tumor location within the third ventricle, the degree of ventriculomegaly, and the need to perform a septostomy. Singularly or combined with other endoscopic procedures, patients can be spared multiple and more invasive surgical procedures.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cancer
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8/152. diffusion magnetic resonance imaging: an early surrogate marker of therapeutic efficacy in brain tumors.

    BACKGROUND: A surrogate marker for treatment response that can be observed earlier than comparison of sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, which depends on relatively slow changes in tumor volume, may improve survival of brain tumor patients by providing more time for secondary therapeutic interventions. Previous studies in animals with the use of diffusion MRI revealed rapid changes in tumor water diffusion values after successful therapeutic intervention. methods: The present study examined the sensitivity of diffusion MRI measurements in orthotopic rat brain tumors derived from implanted rat 9L glioma cells. The effectiveness of therapy for individual brain cancer patients was evaluated by measuring changes in tumor volume on neuroimaging studies conducted 6--8 weeks after the conclusion of a treatment cycle. RESULTS: Diffusion MRI could detect water diffusion changes in orthotopic 9L gliomas after doses of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU or carmustine) that resulted in as little as 0.2 log cell kill, a measure of tumor cell death. Mean apparent diffusion coefficients in tumors were found to be correlated with and highly sensitive to changes in tumor cellularity (r =.78; two-sided P =.041). The feasibility of serial diffusion MRI in the clinical management of primary brain tumor patients was also demonstrated. Increased diffusion values could be detected in human brain tumors shortly after treatment initiation. The magnitude of the diffusion changes corresponded with clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that diffusion MRI will provide an early surrogate marker for quantification of treatment response in patients with brain tumors.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cancer
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9/152. Chordoid glioma: a novel tumor of the third ventricle.

    Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle is a recently characterized primary neoplasm of the central nervous system. We present a case and discuss the pathologic and radiologic features. We are aware of only 16 other cases documented in the world literature. This radiologic-pathologic correlation alerts pathologists and radiologists to recognize chordoid glioma as a distinct clinicopathologic entity restricted to the third ventricular area of adult patients.
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ranking = 40.071637744016
keywords = neoplasm
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10/152. Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle: an ultrastructural study of three cases with a histogenetic hypothesis.

    Chordoid glioma is a rare neoplasm occurring in the third ventricle and, as the name implies, having a chordoid appearance. It is currently considered a glial neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis with distinct clinicopathologic features. We report three cases of chordoid glioma with a focus on the ultrastructural appearance. The patients were two men and one woman aged, respectively, 34, 40, and 43 years. Immunohistochemically, all tumors showed strong and diffuse reactivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, whereas immunoreactivity for epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratin was focal. Ultrastructurally, they showed features of ependymal differentiation for the presence of an apical pole with microvilli and a basal pole characterized, as in normal ependyma, by many hemidesmosomelike structures connecting cell membranes to the underlying basal lamina. Constant features were a submicroscopic cell body zonation (i.e., perinuclear, intermediate, subapical, and apical regions) and the presence of secretory granules. These findings were similar to those described for the secretory ependymal cells of the subcommissural organ, a small structure located in a dorsocaudal region of the third ventricle that undergoes regression after birth in humans. Our observations suggest that chordoid glioma may represent a subtype of ependymoma whose cells resemble the highly specialized ependyma of the subcommissural organ.
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ranking = 80.143275488032
keywords = neoplasm
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