Cases reported "glioma"

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1/1126. Transient paralytic attacks of obscure nature: the question of non-convulsive seizure paralysis.

    Eleven patients with transient paralytic attacks of obscure nature are described. paralysis could involve face or leg alone, face and hand, or face, arm and leg. The duration varied from two minutes to one day. Four patients had brain tumors, six probably had brain infarcts, and one a degenerative process. The differential diagnosis included TIAs, migraine accompaniments, and seizures. In the absence of good evidence for the first two, the cases are discussed from the standpoint of possibly representing nonconvulsive seizure paralysis (ictal paralysis, inhibitory seizure paralysis or somatic inhibitory seizure). Because of the difficulty in defining seizures as well as TIAs and migraine in their atypical variations, a firm conclusion concerning the mechanisms of the spells was not attained. Two cases of the hypertensive amaurosis-seizure syndrome have been added as further examples of ictal deficits. ( info)

2/1126. Complete remission of a diffuse pontine glioma.

    A patient is described in whom a large diffuse glioma of the pons extending into the midbrain was diagnosed at the age of 2 years. biopsy showed a fibrillary astrocytoma. After shunting of a hydrocephalus, the clinical symptoms abated without conventional therapy. Repeated MRI studies showed a continuous decrease of the tumour which was no longer visible when the patient was 6.6 years old. In reviews on spontaneous remissions of oncologic disorders we were unable to find a case of a biologically benign brain stem tumour. There is one isolated report on a similar case, though without histologic documentation. ( info)

3/1126. Secondary glioblastoma remarkably reduced by steroid administration after anaplastic transformation from gliomatosis cerebri--case report.

    A 45-year-old female presented with gliomatosis cerebri manifesting as hemiballismus-like involuntary movement in the arm, motor weakness in the leg, and hypesthesia in her left side. Computed tomography showed only diffuse swelling of the right cerebral hemisphere, but T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed a diffuse lesion spreading from the right thalamus to the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes on the same side. No abnormal enhancement was recognized. cerebral angiography showed no specific finding. A right occipital lobectomy was performed to confirm the diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri. Anaplastic transformation was recognized 5 months later. The disease did not resolve with radiation or interferon administration, but steroid therapy achieved remarkably effective tumor regression. The patient died due to pneumonia. autopsy showed the features of diffuse glioblastoma. Steroid therapy may be an effective treatment for gliomatosis cerebri before the terminal stage. ( info)

4/1126. Integration of preoperative and intraoperative functional brain mapping in a frameless stereotactic environment for lesions near eloquent cortex. Technical note.

    The authors present a method of incorporating preoperative noninvasive functional brain mapping data into the frameless stereotactic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging dataset used for image-guided resection of brain lesions located near eloquent cortex. They report the use of functional (f)MR imaging and magnetic source (MS) imaging for preoperative mapping of eloquent cortex in difficult cases of brain tumor resection such as those in which there are large expansive masses or in which reoperations are required and the anatomy is distorted from prior treatments. To correlate methods of preoperative and intraoperative mapping localization directly, the authors have developed techniques of importing preoperative MS and fMR imaging data into an image-guided frameless stereotactic computer workstation. The data appear as a seamless overlay on the same preoperative volumetric MR imaging dataset used for stereotactic guidance during the operation. Intraoperatively identified functional locations mapped by cortical stimulation are recorded as digitally registered points. This approach should prove useful in assessing the accuracy and reliability of various preoperative functional brain mapping techniques. ( info)

5/1126. dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in an infant with a history of choroid plexus papilloma.

    We describe an infant with a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) who also had a choroid plexus papilloma. This report underscores the occurrence of DFSP in this age group and may support a neural pathogenesis of this tumor. ( info)

6/1126. MRI diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri.

    Until recently the diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri has been made on postmortem examination. This article reviews the use of serial magnetic resonance imaging studies to suggest premorbid diagnosis of this condition. The following is a case report of a 14-year-old female who had a subtotal cortical resection of tumor and several years later developed a progressive dementia. At postmortem examination the diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri was made. Diffuse progressive white matter changes involving both hemispheres and brainstem, with increased thickness of the corpus callosum and without changes in cortical markings on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images, in this patient were highly suggestive of the diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri. ( info)

7/1126. pulmonary edema after resection of a fourth ventricle tumor: possible evidence for a medulla-mediated mechanism.

    A well-recognized fact is that some patients may have development of pulmonary edema in association with disorders of the central nervous system. The origin of this phenomenon, known as neurogenic pulmonary edema, is unclear but may result, in part, from select pulmonary venoconstriction modulated by autonomic outflow from the medulla oblongata. We describe a 21-year-old man who had development of pulmonary edema in association with surgical resection of a brain tumor that was close to the medulla. Other than the possibility of medullary dysfunction, which could have occurred after surgical manipulation, no other risk factor for pulmonary edema was identified. Of note, the patient's blood pressure remained normal throughout the perioperative period, and no fluid overload or primary cardiac dysfunction was evident. This case supports the theory that the medulla is an important anatomic site of origin for neurogenic pulmonary edema and that alterations in medullary function can induce pulmonary edema in humans, independent of systemic hypertension. ( info)

8/1126. Subcutaneous sacrococcygeal myxopapillary ependymoma.

    We report a case of myxopapillary ependymoma presenting as a primary tumor of the subcutaneous tissue in the sacrococcygeal region. The mass was large, well-encapsulated, lobulated, and multiseptated, with varying signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted MR images caused by hemorrhagic necrosis, blood degradation products, and calcification. Only a small viable portion enhanced after administration of contrast material. Multiple lobules formed from fibrous septa and dystrophic calcification also characterize this tumor. ( info)

9/1126. Molecular analysis of glioma and skin-tumour alterations in a xeroderma-pigmentosum child.

    xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare hereditary disease characterized by a very high frequency of skin tumours due to a defect in the nucleotide-excision-repair process. Some of these patients have also been reported to develop internal tumours with higher frequency than the normal population. Reported here are the clinical features and molecular analysis of an XP patient who developed multiple skin cancers as well as a thalamic glioma. Complementation analysis with recombinant retrovirus, cloning efficiency and unscheduled DNA synthesis after UV-C indicate that the patient belongs to the C group. Characterization of the p53 mutations in the 2 tumours of the patient leads to speculation on the aetiological agents involved in tumour initiation. The skin tumour is clearly induced by the presence of unrepaired UVB-induced dna damage on the non-transcribed strand of the p53 gene, while the glioma may be induced by unrepaired DNA lesions produced by free radicals. ( info)

10/1126. Diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis with oligodendroglioma.

    Leptomeningeal gliomatosis is a primary glioma residing mainly in the leptomeninges. We describe a rare case of diffuse leptomeningeal glioma, occurring in a six year old girl, in which the morphological features of the cellular infiltrates were those of an oligodendroglioma. To our knowledge, this is the fifth case of diffuse oligodendrogliomatosis reported in the English language literature. ( info)
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