Cases reported "Gliosis"

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1/16. dna damage and activated caspase-3 expression in neurons and astrocytes: evidence for apoptosis in frontotemporal dementia.

    frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disease which affects mainly the frontal and anterior temporal cortex. It is associated with neuronal loss, gliosis, and microvacuolation of lamina I to III in these brain regions. In previous studies we have described neurons with dna damage in the absence of tangle formation and suggested this may result in tangle-independent mechanisms of neurodegeneration in the AD brain. In the present study, we sought to examine dna fragmentation and activated caspase-3 expression in FTD brain where tangle formation is largely absent. The results demonstrate that numerous nuclei were TdT positive in all FTD brains examined. Activated caspase-3 immunoreactivity was detected in both neurons and astrocytes and was elevated in FTD cases as compared to control cases. A subset of activated caspase-3-positive cells were also TdT positive. In addition, the cell bodies of a subset of astrocytes showed enlarged, irregular shapes, and vacuolation and their processes appeared fragmented. These degenerating astrocytes were positive for activated caspase-3 and colocalized with robust TdT-labeled nuclei. These findings suggest that a subset of astrocytes exhibit degeneration and that dna damage and activated caspase-3 may contribute to neuronal cell death and astrocyte degeneration in the FTD brain. Our results suggest that apoptosis may be a mechanism of neuronal cell death in FTD as well as in AD (228).
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2/16. Clasmatodendrosis correlating with periventricular hyperintensity in mixed dementia.

    We report a 79-year-old woman with possible Alzheimer's disease and confluent periventricular white matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging in whom postmortem analysis unexpectedly demonstrated no periventricular demyelination or cerebral arteriosclerosis. However, astrocytes in the periventricular white matter exhibited clasmatodendrosis, defined as cytoplasmic swelling and vacuolation of astroglia, with beading of their dendrites. This finding represents a previously unrecognized correlate of periventricular white matter hyperintensities. Ann Neurol 2002;52:378-381
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3/16. Neuropathological considerations in cerebro-hepato-renal syndrome (Zellweger's syndrome).

    The nervous system in patients with cerebro-hepato-renal syndrome appeared to be affected at various tissue levels. There was evidence of a migrational disorder manifested by polymicrogyria and lack of normal neuronal maturation. There was dysmyelination of the white matter associated with accumulation of neutral fat in astrocytes. Within the peripheral nerves, masses of tangled neurofilaments producing dystrophic axons were demonstrated by electron microscopy. These findings could be explained on the basis of a genetic metabolic defect, one that involved particularly the amino acids. The defect may have interfered with the normal intercellular reaction during embryogenesis resulting in the malformation of multiple organs. The same metabolic abnormality could have caused the hepatic damage and disturbance in normal myelination during the neonatal period.
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4/16. 4-repeat tauopathy sharing pathological and biochemical features of corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    We report a 67-year-old man with 4-repeat (4R) tauopathy sharing both features of corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Although CBD and PSP have a common pathological feature that 4R tau accumulates in neurons and glia, recent pathological studies have confirmed differences between the two disorders. Clinical features of the present case were asymmetrical apraxia, parkinsonism, memory disturbance, disorientation and left limb myoclonus with a 5-year history. Pathological features were the widespread occurrence of 4R tau-positive structures including pre-tangles, neurofibrillary tangles, astrocytic plaques, tufted astrocytes, coiled bodies and argyrophilic threads. Biochemically, immunoblotting of insoluble tau demonstrated the low molecular fragments of 37 kDa and 33 kDa observed in typical CBD and PSP, respectively, in addition to the presence of 4R tau isoforms. The present case shared tau-related pathological and biochemical features of CBD and PSP. These findings support that CBD and PSP are closely associated disorders having a pathogenesis common to 4R tauopathy.
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5/16. Anchorage densities associated with hemidesmosome-like structures in perivascular reactive astrocytes.

    Electron microscopical examination of devastated and reticular gliosis-replaced areas of two human brains revealed novel anchorage densities (ADs) associated with hemidesmosome-like structures (HDLSs) in perivascular astrocytes; the densities, 200-300 nm away from the cell membrane overlying the basal lamina, ran parallel to the membrane. The subplasmalemmal ADs usually received fibrils from the main stream of the deeply located glial fibrils, and sent isolated 13- to 16-nm fibrils roughly perpendicularly to the unusually prominent and frequently continuous HDLSs on the inner leaflet of the cell membrane, undercoated by a thickened basal lamina. The variable profiles of the ADs indicated that they were cell membrane-connected sheets or meshes that were virtually completely composed of bundles of glial fibrils intercrossing at variable angles or running roughly parallel to one another. All these findings suggest that the ADs may provide a significant support to the cell membrane facing the perivascular space.
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6/16. Thalamic dementia: an example of primary astroglial dystrophy of Seitelberger.

    Pure thalamic dementia is highly uncommon and typically demonstrates widespread loss of neurons throughout the thalamus associated with reactive gliosis. This report describes an autopsy case in which there is widespread gliosis of subcortical white matter, focal hippocampal sclerosis and a unique proliferation of protoplasmic astrocytes in the thalamus, with limited bilateral focal loss of neurons. The alterations of the protoplasmic astrocytes consist of proliferation of perivascular feet surrounding blood vessels and velate sheets which surround individual neurons. It is proposed that the astrocytic alterations, or astrocytic dystrophy, constitute the primary and critical pathologic-change, sufficiently severe to produce dementia in the presence of a relatively intact neuronal population.
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7/16. cerebral amyloid angiopathy and astrocytic gliosis in Alzheimer's disease.

    Astrocytic reaction at amyloid infiltrated cortical vessels was studied using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) stain in two cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sections from the visual and prefrontal cortex were stained with H&E, Bodian, congo red, and thioflavin S in addition to GFAP. Senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles were present in both cases. The density of astrocytes surrounding vessels infiltrated with amyloid was variable. In the same area, there were vessels with minimal perivascular astrocytic reaction as well as vessels displaying more pronounced perivascular gliosis; there was no constant excessive gliosis around vessels with severe amyloid deposits. However, if amyloid infiltrating the vessel wall protruded into the perivascular neuropil of the cortex, then prolific reaction of astroglia, similar to that seen at interstitial senile plaques was apparent, and a neuritic component was distinct. It appears that once amyloid of AD type is deposited in the neuropil, whether in form of interstitial plaque or perivascular plaque, it causes a similar astroglial and neuritic reaction.
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8/16. Familial presenile dementia with CJD-like lesions: preliminary results.

    A case of an unknown type of familial presenile dementia is reported. The patient was a 56-year-old female, whose main clinical symptom was a gradually progressive dementia over 16 years. She had no myoclonus or periodic synchronous discharge in the EEG. The CT scans revealed marked cerebral atrophy with prominent atrophy of the cerebral white matter. One of her sisters is thought to suffer from the same disease, and is now in an apallic state. The patient was clinically diagnosed as having familial Alzheimer's disease. The neuropathological features consisted of severe cerebral cortical degeneration with conspicuous proliferation of gemistocytic astrocytes as well as severe cerebral white matter degeneration. These cerebral lesions are most similar to those of the panencephalopathic type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob's disease (CJD). However, our case differs from it in that the cerebellar degeneration was very mild. Transmission experiments of frozen tissue from the patient into animals are being tried. The neurochemical data suggested cholinergic deficits. As far as we know, such a case has never been reported in the literature.
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9/16. Massive retinal gliosis. A reactive proliferation of Muller cells.

    Both Muller cells and astrocytes have been implicated in the dispute over the histogenesis of massive retinal gliosis. We studied three cases of massive retinal gliosis by light and electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. Spindle fibrillary glial cells were joined by zonulae adherentes resembling those of the external limiting membrane of the retina. Furthermore, these cells produced a continuous basement membrane around an extracellular space filled with fine filaments, which was highly suggestive of vitreous cavity. In the proliferating cells, immunoperoxidase technique disclosed the presence of carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme C, characteristically found only in Muller cells. The glial cells in the preretinal membrane away from the gliotic nodule showed similar characteristics. We concluded that both the nodule of massive retinal gliosis and the associated preretinal glial membrane resulted from the proliferation and migration of Muller cells.
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10/16. A quantitative analysis of human astrocytosis.

    The number of astrocytes in an atrophic human brain was counted with the aid of immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein. Microscopically, astrocytosis was remarkable in the cerebral neocortex and white matter. Taking the cortical atrophy into consideration, however, the total number of astrocytes in the cortical layers II-VI was not increased. The number of astrocytes in the white matter was not increased either. It is indicated that astrocytosis does not always mean hyperplasia (net increase of total number) of astrocytes.
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