Cases reported "Gliosis"

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1/29. Brainstem pathology of infantile Gaucher's disease with only wave I and II of auditory brainstem response.

    We studied the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and neuropathology in a female infant who died at six months of age because of typical infantile Gaucher's disease. The patient was hospitalized for hepatosplenomegaly and failure to thrive. Her ABR showed only waves I and II. The neuropathological study disclosed that: (1) Gaucher's cells were found in the perivascular region of the cerebrum and anterior ventral nucleus of the thalamus. (2) gliosis was found in the dorsal part of the brainstem rather than the ventral part. (3) Neuronal cells in the superior olivary nucleus were lost, and marked gliosis was found in the cochlear nucleus. The disappearance of wave III and later waves of ABR could be supported by these pathological findings.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nucleus
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2/29. The cerebellar and thalamic degeneration in Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy.

    We report a male autopsy case of Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), with unusual neuropathological findings. The patient was a Japanese man aged 26 years at the time of death. He had shown severe psychomotor retardation and muscular dystrophy since early infancy, and was diagnosed as having FCMD at the age of 5 years. He died of respiratory failure. The main neuropathological finding was extensive cerebral and cerebellar cortical dysplasia, characteristic of this disorder. In addition, degeneration of the cerebellar efferent pathway, including the dentate nucleus, superior cerebellar peduncle, and red nucleus, and that of the lateral thalamic nucleus were observed. These findings suggest the possibility that the long survival can clarify the latent neurodegeneration in the cerebellum and thalamus in FCMD, in addition to congenital malformations. The system degeneration should be carefully evaluated in the pathological examination of this disorder.
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ranking = 53.452017136204
keywords = thalamic nucleus, nucleus
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3/29. Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy and cortical dysplasia.

    Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) encompasses a heterogenous group of muscle disorders with autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized by muscular weakness and hypotonia at birth or within the first few months of life and developmental delay. Merosin-deficient CMD is a clinically distinct form which may be associated with significant abnormalities of the brain detectable by neuroimaging. We report two siblings of consanguineous parents with merosin-deficient CMD in an Irish family who in addition to the characteristic white matter abnormalities on neuroimaging, had occipital dysplasia. Clinical, electrophysiological muscle biopsy findings and neuroimaging were very similar in both cases. Although merosin-deficient CMD with white matter abnormalities on neuroimaging is well documented in the literature, the association with occipital dysplasia has only rarely been reported. The appearance of an identical cortical defect in these siblings suggests an underlying genetic mechanism.
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ranking = 9.4200994084514E-6
keywords = group
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4/29. Long-term deep brain stimulation in a patient with essential tremor: clinical response and postmortem correlation with stimulator termination sites in ventral thalamus. Case report.

    essential tremor can be suppressed with chronic, bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventralis intermedius nucleus (Vim), the cerebellar receiving area of the motor thalamus. The goal in this study was to correlate the location of the electrodes with the clinical efficacy of DBS in a patient with essential tremor. The authors report on a woman with essential tremor in whom chronic bilateral DBS directed to the ventral thalamus produced adequate tremor suppression until her death from unrelated causes 16 months after placement of the electrodes. Neuropathological postmortem studies of the brain in this patient demonstrated that both stimulators terminated in the Vim region of the thalamus, and that chronic DBS elicited minor reactive changes confined to the immediate vicinity of the electrode tracks. Although the authors could not identify neuropathological abnormalities specific to essential tremor, they believe that suppression of essential tremor by chronic DBS correlates with bilateral termination of the stimulators in the Vim region of the thalamus.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = nucleus
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5/29. Co-localization of alpha-synuclein and phosphorylated tau in neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions in a patient with multiple system atrophy of long duration.

    Neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs and GCIs), which contain alpha-synuclein as a major component, are characteristic cytopathological features of multiple system atrophy (MSA). We report MSA of 19 years' duration in a 73-year-old woman. Her initial symptom was parkinsonism, with dementia appearing about 8 years later. Postmortem examination showed marked atrophy of the frontal and temporal white matter and limbic system, in addition to the pathology typical of MSA. In the limbic system, severe neuronal loss and astrocytosis were observed, and the remaining neurons often had lightly eosinophilic, spherical cytoplasmic inclusions. Interestingly, a double-labeling immunofluorescence study revealed that the NCIs in the dentate gyrus and amygdaloid nucleus, and the GCIs in the frontal and temporal white matter often expressed both alpha-synuclein NACP-5 and phosphorylated tau AT8 epitopes. Double-immunolabeling electron microscopy of the NCIs in the dentate gyrus and the GCIs in the temporal white matter clearly revealed labeling of their constituent granule-associated filaments with NACP-5, and some of them were also labeled with AT8. These findings strongly suggested that some alpha-synuclein filaments were decorated with phosphorylated tau without formation of fibrils such as paired helical filaments. immunoblotting of sarkosyl-insoluble tau indicated that the accumulated tau consisted mainly of four-repeat tau isoforms of 383 amino acids and 412 amino acids. We consider that the limbic system can be a major site of neurodegeneration in MSA of long duration. The mechanisms of such abnormal tau accumulation in the NCIs and GCIs are unknown.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = nucleus
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6/29. Neuropathological findings in a patient with epilepsy and the Parry-Romberg syndrome.

    PURPOSE: The Parry-Romberg syndrome is an unusual disorder frequently associated with epilepsy. The origin of this disease, and the cause of epilepsy, are unknown. This study is the first reported case of the Parry-Romberg syndrome, with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy, in which detailed microanatomic analyses have been performed on resected brain tissue obtained after surgical intervention. methods: Standard histopathologic methods and correlative light and electron microscopy, combined with immunocytochemical techniques, were used to study in detail the synaptic microorganization of the resected hippocampal formation. RESULTS: After surgery, the patient was seizure free (follow-up period of 4 years and 7 months). The resected temporal lobe showed a variety of dramatic microanatomic alterations (small groups of ectopic cells, neuronal loss, gliosis, and activated microglial cells) in mesial structures, including the entorhinal cortex, subiculum, and dentate gyrus. At the electron-microscopic level, we found that in the dentate gyrus, the number of synapses in the cell-sparse region adjacent to the ectopic mass of neurons was almost twice that found in the molecular and polymorph cell layers, indicating the intrusion of neuritic processes and synapse formation. In addition, the symmetrical axosomatic synapses characteristically found on granule cells, which are likely derived from gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inhibitory basket cells, were not observed. CONCLUSION: The complete seizure relief after surgery suggests that the pacemaker region(s) of seizure activity were within the resected tissue. However, we do not know which of the multiple neuropathologic findings reported here were the primary cause of seizure activity. Nevertheless, the changes found in the dentate gyrus circuitry appear to be among the most important alterations that would lead to epilepsy.
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ranking = 9.4200994084514E-6
keywords = group
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7/29. A novel grading scale for striatonigral degeneration (multiple system atrophy).

    striatonigral degeneration (SND) is commonly thought to represent the neuropathological substrate of L-Dopa unresponsive parkinsonism in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Other neuropathological hallmarks of MSA include olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and preganglionic sympathetic spinal cord lesions. Clinicopathological evaluation of MSA patients recruited into ongoing natural history studies or neuroprotective intervention trials will require standardized grading of MSA pathology. Based on 25 autopsy cases of MSA, we propose a novel SND grading scale which allows semiquantitative assessment of lesion severity based on neuronal loss, astrogliosis and presence of alpha-synuclein positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) in substantia nigra, putamen, caudate nucleus, and globus pallidus. SND grade I is defined as degeneration of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) with relative preservation of the striatum except for minimal gliosis and GCIs in the posterior putamen ("minimal change MSA"). SND grade II is characterized by neuronal loss, astrogliosis and presence of GCIs in SNC and posterior/dorsolateral putamen. caudate nucleus and external globus pallidus may exhibit slight gliosis. Striatal pathology is severe and extends to anterior ventromedial subregions in SND grade III. There is neuronal loss in caudate nucleus and globus pallidus. GCIs are more abundant in grade II than grade III SNC and putamen. Preliminary clinicopathologic correlation studies suggest milder parkinsonian disability and better initial L-Dopa responsiveness in SND grade I and II cases compared to grade III cases. Prospective clinicopathologic studies are required to validate the proposed SND grading scale and may result in further subdivisions, particularly of SND grade III.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nucleus
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8/29. A novel mutation (G217D) in the Presenilin 1 gene ( PSEN1) in a Japanese family: presenile dementia and parkinsonism are associated with cotton wool plaques in the cortex and striatum.

    We report a family of Japanese origin that has five individuals from two generations affected by an illness characterized by dementia, a stooped posture and an antiflexion gait with an onset in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Two siblings had a clinical phenotype characterized by dementia and Parkinsonism with stooped posture, rigidity and bradykinesia. Neuropathological alterations in both patients included numerous 'cotton wool' plaques (CWPs), senile plaques, severe amyloid angiopathy, neurofibrillary tangles, neuronal rarefaction and gliosis. CWPs were present throughout the cerebral cortex as well as in the caudate nucleus, putamen, claustrum, thalamus, substantia innominata and colliculi. These plaques contained a small quantity of argyrophilic and tau-immunopositive neurites as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunopositive elements. They were mildly fluorescent with thioflavin S and immunopositive using monoclonal antibodies recognizing amyloid beta (A beta) ending at residue 42. The main constituents of CWPs were neuropil elements and extracellular amyloid fibrils. These neuropil elements were small dendrites including spines, axon terminals containing synaptic vesicles and astrocytic processes. dendrites occasionally contained bundles of paired helical filaments. dendrites and axons often had an irregular outline and appeared as degenerating osmiophilic processes containing electron-dense mitochondria. Genetic analysis of the proband's affected sibling revealed a novel nucleotide substitution (G to A) in exon 8 of the Presenilin 1 ( PSEN1) gene. This nucleotide change results in a glycine to aspartic acid substitution at residue 217 of the PSEN1 protein. This study provides further evidence of clinical and pathological heterogeneity in dementing illnesses associated with PSEN1 mutations.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = nucleus
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9/29. Familial motor neuron disease with Lewy body-like inclusions in the substantia nigra, the subthalamic nucleus, and the globus pallidus.

    In a familial case of motor neuron disease (MND), 2 unusual features were noted in the necropsy. The first was a pallidoluysonigral degeneration, observed in only 4 other cases of MND and which was here asymptomatic. The second was the presence in degenerated spinal cord anterior horns and in degenerated basal ganglia of neuronal Lewy body-like inclusions stained by antibodies against ubiquitin.
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ranking = 211.14140187815
keywords = thalamic nucleus, nucleus
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10/29. An autopsied case of dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy with atypical pathological features.

    This is a report of an autopsied case of dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) with atypical neuropathological findings. The patients was a 31-year-old female. Her clinical symptoms were epileptic seizures, cerebellar ataxia, choreoathetosis and dementia. A neuropathological examination revealed the fibrillary gliosis in various areas of the CNS and severe degeneration in the cerebellar cortex and nucleus fasciculi dorsalis in addition to a marked degeneration of the dentatorubropallidoluysian systems. The present case is diagnosed neuropathologically as DRPLA associated with the findings of chronic diphenylhydantoin intoxication and epileptic brain damage.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = nucleus
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