Cases reported "Gliosis"

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1/4. Dissociation of visual and haptic vertical in two patients with vestibular nuclear lesions.

    The somatosensory (haptic) vertical (HV) and visual vertical (VV) were assessed in two patients with vestibular nuclear lesions. Patient 1 had paroxysmal nystagmus, and was tested "on" and "off." The HV was normal "on" and "off" but the VV was severely tilted during vestibular paroxysms. Patient 2, with a brainstem stroke, was tested at months 1 and 6. The VV was severely tilted on both occasions (>12 degrees) but the HV was marginally tilted (4 degrees) in the acute stage only. These VV-HV dissociations suggest that vestibular nuclear lesions influence gravity perception mostly via ocular torsional effects rather than by disrupting a single, internal representation of verticality.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vertical
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2/4. Brainstem findings in Huntington's disease. Possible mechanisms for slow vertical saccades.

    Quantitative, morphometric studies of the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF) were performed on the brains of four patients with Huntington's disease (HD) who had shown slow vertical saccades, and on the brains of three control subjects. Only one HD brain showed a statistically significant decrease in the number of larger neurons in the riMLF though all four brains showed non-specific gliosis. Taken with results from physiological and other clinical studies, the present data suggest that slow vertical saccades in HD are due, at least in part, to disordered inputs to the riMLF.
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ranking = 0.85714285714286
keywords = vertical
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3/4. Neuropathological findings in a case of coexistent progressive supranuclear palsy and Alzheimer's disease.

    A 66-year-old man was investigated for increasing forgetfulness and frequent falls. Following appropriate investigations, the cause was presumed to be senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. He was reviewed one year later and found to have impaired vertical gaze and a hoarse voice. Progressive dementia, nuchal rigidity, anarthria, and sphincteric incontinence developed subsequently. A diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy was made. He died four years after the initial assessment. Neuropathological examination revealed changes characteristic of progressive supranuclear palsy, and suggestive of Alzheimer's disease. Globose tangles, granulovacuolar bodies and gliosis were present in the midbrain, the pons, the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum, and the globus pallidus. Senile plaques and occasional neurofibrillary tangles and granulovacuolar bodies were found in the hippocampus, amygdala, and temporal cortex. The coexistence of two disease processes resulting in dementia is discussed.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = vertical
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4/4. Pallidoluysian atrophy: dystonia and basal ganglia functional anatomy.

    The clinical correlates of "pure" pallidoluysian atrophy are not well described. A 59-year-old man presented with 20 years of progressive generalized dystonia, dysarthria, gait disorder, supranuclear vertical gaze palsy, and bradykinesia. At autopsy there was severe bilateral atrophy of the external pallidum and subthalamic nucleus with neuronal loss and marked gliosis. This syndrome may epitomize the consequences of "pure" pallidoluysian atrophy. In this case, dystonia appears to occur in the setting of decreased excitation (increased inhibition) of medial pallidal neurons, a pathophysiologic condition common to several hyperkinetic states.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = vertical
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