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1/19. Nephritogenic lambda light chain dimer: a unique human miniautoantibody against complement factor h.

    A unique monoclonal Ig lambda light chain dimer (protein LOI) was isolated from the serum and urine of a patient with hypocomplementemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. in vitro the lambda light chain dimer efficiently activated the alternative pathway of complement (AP). When added to normal human serum, LOI temporarily enhanced AP hemolytic activity, but during a prolonged incubation the hemolytic activity was depleted. Protein LOI was found to bind to factor H, the main regulator molecule of AP. By binding to the short consensus repeat domain 3 of factor H, the dimer LOI blocked one of three interaction sites between H and C3b and thus inhibited the activity of H and induced an uncontrolled activation of the AP. Structural analysis showed that LOI belonged to the Vlambda3a subgroup of lambda light chains. The variable (V) region of LOI was most closely related to the predicted product of the Vlambda3 germline gene Iglv3s2, although it contained several unique residues that in a tertiary homology model structure form an unusual ring of charged residues around a hydrophobic groove in the putative Ag binding site. This site fitted considerably well with a putative binding site in the molecular model of domain 3 of factor H containing a reciprocal ring of charged amino acids around a hydrophobic area. Apparently, functional blocking of factor H by the Ab fragment-like lambda light chain dimer had initiated the development of a severe form of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Thus, the lambda light chain dimer LOI represents the first described pathogenic miniautoantibody in human disease.
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2/19. Infantile nephrotic syndrome and congenital glaucoma.

    A case of infantile nephrotic syndrome (NS) with advanced membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), type I, and bilateral congenital glaucoma, is presented. The patient also had persistent thrombocytopenia and subclinical hypothyroidism. The parents were second-degree cousins and the affected infant had a sibling who was born with congenital glaucoma. His mother had an aunt and uncle on the maternal side who were born with congenital glaucoma. In addition, there was a history of infantile death in five family members of unknown causes (pedigree). To the best of our knowledge, the association of congenital glaucoma and infantile NS due to MPGN has not been reported previously.
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3/19. Cyclosporin A treatment for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II.

    A nephrotic patient with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II (MPGN II) was treated with cyclosporin A (CSA) and alternate-day low-dose prednisolone. This patient developed the nephrotic syndrome twice. The second episode of the nephrotic syndrome was steroid resistant, and therefore this patient was treated with a CSA regimen. During treatments with alternate-day low-dose prednisolone and CSA, this patient recovered from the nephrotic syndrome. We conclude that CSA therapy may be effective for patients with the steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome caused by MPGN II.
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4/19. Visual impairment caused by retinal abnormalities in mesangiocapillary (membranoproliferative) glomerulonephritis type II ("dense deposit disease").

    patients with mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (MCGN) type II usually present by early adulthood with hematuria, proteinuria, and renal impairment, and these features often are accompanied by a partial lipodystrophy and an autoantibody for the alternative complement pathway convertase (C3NeF). The diagnosis of MCGN type II depends on the demonstration of "dense deposits" in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Most patients also have multiple subretinal white spots or drusen that are histopathologically identical with the GBM deposits and evident ophthalmoscopically by the time renal failure develops. Initially visual acuity and visual fields are preserved, but fluorescein angiography and specialized tests of retinal function, such as dark adaptation, electroretinography, and electrooculography, may be abnormal and will worsen progressively. Over the next 20 years, vision often deteriorates because of retinal atrophy, and sometimes because of subretinal neovascular membranes, macular detachment, and central serous retinopathy. The authors describe a patient with MCGN type II who presented with renal failure and impaired vision at the age of 59. He already had widespread retinal atrophy, and subsequently a subretinal membrane developed. The drusen seen in MCGN type II, like the partial lipodystrophy, are a helpful clinical pointer to the diagnosis of this condition. All patients with MCGN type II should be warned of the risk of retinal complications and reviewed by an ophthalmologist at presentation and regularly after about 10 years to minimize the loss of visual acuity from complications of the retinopathy.
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5/19. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hereditary deficiency of the 4th component of complement.

    A 10-year-old female patient was found positive for urine protein and occult blood on Japanese school urinary screening. Examination of the blood was normal except low values of the complement system with CH50 13.5 U/ml, C3 45 mg/dl and C4 3 mg/dl. Renal biopsy demonstrated a focal membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). As for the activity of each component of the complement in the early stage of the disease, the C4 activity was markedly declined and the activity of classical pathway component was also decreased, but the activity of alternative pathway component was normal. On the HLA examination, the patient demonstrated a C4 double null haplotype (C4A2, Q0, BQ0 phenotype). A null C4 gene at both the C4A and C4B loci was found in her mother, aunt and grandfather on the mother's side and C4B null allele in her father and her grandmother on the mother's side. The development of the disease is found in 1 case and not in the other, although both have the genetic defect and the mechanism by which the complement is activated remains unknown. Thus, there appear to be many subjects to be studied as to the relationship between the defect of C4 gene and immune competence.
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6/19. Long-term follow-up of type II membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in two children.

    We report the long-term follow-up of two patients with type II membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). One patients was treated with high-dose alternate-day prednisolone and the other with dipyridamole. Both had favorable clinical courses over 8.5 and 15.5 years of follow-up, respectively. One patient who showed diffuse proliferative changes lost the urinary abnormalities 2 years after starting treatment. Her follow-up renal biopsies showed histological improvement. In the other patient, a boy, renal biopsy performed 6 years after the onset showed mild mesangial proliferation and a moderate matrix increase. His urine became normal 14 years after onset. Intramembranous electron-dense deposits persisted in these patients over 7 and 6 years of observation, respectively. patients with type II MPGN are usually difficult to treat and often progress to endstage renal failure. There is, however, a group of patients who have a favorable clinical course.
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7/19. IgA-associated glomerulonephritis with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis-like pattern in two children.

    In this article, we report two patients with IgA-associated glomerulonephritis with a membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) -like pattern. Both patients had nephrotic syndrome at onset. One patient was treated with high-dose alternate-day prednisolone (PSL), and the other with indomethacin and low-dose PSL. One lost the urinary abnormalities 3 years after starting treatment. The other lost the nephrotic state and hematuria over a 5-year period, but proteinuria persisted until the last follow-up. Both patients had diffuse proliferative changes with mesangial interposition and subendothelial deposits, associated with strongly positive deposits of C3 and IgA along the capillary walls of the glomeruli. These two patients showed histological changes compatible with type-I MPGN, but the pattern of IgA deposits was not typical of idiopathic MPGN or IgA nephropathy. We assume this is a rare form of MPGN, not associated with liver disease or other systemic diseases.
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8/19. Clinical features and metabolic and autoimmune derangements in acquired partial lipodystrophy: report of 35 cases and review of the literature.

    We describe clinical features, body fat distribution, and prevalence of metabolic abnormalities in 35 patients with acquired partial lipodystrophy (APL) seen by us over 8 years, and also review 220 cases of APL described in the literature. Based on the review and our experience, we propose that the essential diagnostic criterion for APL is the gradual onset of bilaterally symmetrical loss of subcutaneous fat from the face, neck, upper extremities, thorax, and abdomen, in the "cephalocaudal" sequence, sparing the lower extremities. Analysis of the pooled data revealed that female patients were affected approximately 4 times more often than males. The median age of the onset of lipodystrophy was 7 years. Several autoimmune diseases, in particular systemic lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis, were associated with APL. The prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance were 6.7% and 8.9%, respectively. Approximately 83% of APL patients had low complement (C) 3 levels and the presence of polyclonal immunoglobulin C3 nephritic factor. Twenty-two percent of patients developed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) after a median of approximately 8 years following the onset of lipodystrophy. Compared with patients without renal disease, those with MPGN had earlier age of onset of lipodystrophy (12.6 /- 10.3 yr vs 7.7 /- 4.4 yr, respectively; p < 0.001) and a higher prevalence of C3 hypocomplementemia (78% vs 95%, respectively; p = 0.02). The pathogenesis of fat loss and MPGN in patients with APL remains unclear, but activation of an alternate complement pathway has been implicated. Treating the cosmetic disfigurement by surgical procedures has yielded inconsistent results. The use of thiazolidinediones to treat fat loss in patients with APL remains anecdotal. prognosis is mainly determined by renal insufficiency due to MPGN.
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9/19. Heterozygous and homozygous factor h deficiencies associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome or membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis: report and genetic analysis of 16 cases.

    Factor H (FH) is the major regulatory protein of the complement alternative pathway, with a structure consisting of a tandem array of 20 homologous units, called short consensus repeats (SCR). Reported are 16 FH-deficient patients. Among six patients with homozygous deficiency, four presented with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and two with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The ten other patients had heterozygous FH deficiency and developed atypical HUS. HUS onset occurred from birth to midadulthood, and disease progression was variable. Four children with homozygous or heterozygous FH deficiency and HUS underwent renal transplantation, which was successful in three but failed as a result of recurrence of HUS in one patient. All but one patient exhibited alternative pathway-mediated complement consumption, with no detectable FH antigenic levels or with 50% immunochemical or functional FH levels in the case of complete or partial deficiency, respectively. The molecular mechanisms of the deficiency were documented in all cases by exon-specific sequencing analysis. These mechanisms included nucleotide substitutions, insertion, or deletion located in SCR 2, 7, 11, 13, 15, and 20, leading to an amino acid substitution or to a stop codon. This report emphasizes the variability in the clinical progression of kidney diseases associated with FH deficiencies. Genetic analysis reveals the molecular abnormalities associated with FH deficiencies to be polymorphous.
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10/19. Activation of the alternative pathway of complement by monoclonal lambda light chains in membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.

    Immunopathological evidence suggests that activation of the alternative pathway of complement (AP) is involved in membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) and in immunoglobulin a nephropathy. In this report we describe an AP dysfunction-associated factor that was isolated from the serum and urine of a patient with hypocomplementemic MPGN. Extensive glomerular deposits of C3, properdin, and of the terminal complement components were observed in the kidney of the patient. In her serum the AP hemolytic activity was virtually absent. When mixed with fresh normal serum, the patient's serum induced a 96% C3 conversion during a 30-min incubation at 37 degrees C. This activity was found to be due to a circulating factor that by immunochemical characterization proved to be a 46-kD monoclonal immunoglobulin lambda light (L) chain dimer (lambda L). Purified lambda L, but not control lambda or kappa L chains from patients with L chain disease, activated the AP in a dose- and ionic strength-dependent manner. Functionally, lambda L was differentiated from C3 nephritic factor (an autoantibody against the AP C3 convertase, C3bBb) by its inability to bind to and stabilize the C3bBb enzyme. Instead, lambda L was observed to interact directly with the AP control factor H. Thus, lambda L represents a novel type of immunoglobulin-related AP-activating factor with the capacity to initiate alternative complement pathway activation in the fluid phase.
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