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11/52. Shunt nephritis from propionibacterium acnes in a solitary kidney.

    Since its initial description in 1965, immune complex glomerulonephritis associated with ventriculoatrial shunts (VAS) has been reported widely in the literature. The most common incriminating organism is staphylococcus epidermidis, but less often, an organism generally regarded as nonpathogenic, such as propionibacterium acnes, has been noted as the cause. Shunt infection usually occurs within a few months after placement or manipulation of the shunt, and shunt nephritis (SN) develops gradually over months to years after. Treatment involves mandatory removal of the shunt and antibiotics; prognosis is variable. We report a case of SN with P acnes that is unusual because of its occurrence in a solitary kidney 6 years after shunt placement, persistently negative blood cultures, and normal complement levels. Percutaneous biopsy of a solitary kidney should be considered if it is expected that the result may guide therapy of progressive renal failure.
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12/52. interferon-alpha in combination with ribavirin as initial treatment for hepatitis c virus-associated cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.

    Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) and glomerulonephritis are the most important extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis c virus (HCV) infection. In HCV-infected patients with MC, renal involvement worsens the overall prognosis because of a high incidence of infection or cardiovascular disease. The relationship between MC and HCV infection has prompted the use of antiviral therapy. Two patients with chronic HCV infection, type-II MC and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), presenting as nephrotic syndrome were treated with interferon (IFN)-alpha (3 MU 3 times per week) and ribavirin (15 mg/kg daily) for 6 months. Laboratory tests included measurement of anti-HCV antibodies, HCV rna, and HCV genotyping, and characterization of circulating cryoglobulins. A pretreatment renal biopsy was performed, and the histopathologic lesions were scored according to the index of disease activity. viremia and cryoglobulinemia were suppressed in both patients. However, a complete remission of proteinuria was observed in 1 patient only. The evaluation of the renal biopsy specimens revealed a mild MPGN (activity score: 5/24) in the patient with remission of proteinuria and a severe MPGN (activity score: 15/24) in the patient who maintained a nephrotic-range proteinuria. Although a fully satisfactory treatment is not yet available, we feel that a reasonable therapeutic strategy for HCV-infected patients with MC nephritis could be as follows: (1) antiviral treatment alone for patients with a low-grade kidney involvement, and (2) a short-term course of steroids and cytotoxic drugs followed by antiviral therapy for acute exacerbations and/or rapidly progressive GN.
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13/52. A case of rapid progressive glomerulonephritis with IgA deposits after renal transplantation.

    A 46-yr-old Japanese male who underwent a second cadaveric kidney transplantation on 31 October 1996 after suffering Type II diabetic mellitus for 25 yr was admitted to our institute on 23 January 1999, because of colicky abdominal pain and abdominal discomfort. Elevated levels of serum creatinine, severe proteinuria and microscopic haematuria were observed. The allograft biopsy specimen disclosed crescentic glomerulonephritis. Immunofluorescence showed granular deposits of mainly IgA and C3 along glomerular capillary walls and mesangial areas. Electron microscopy showed extensive subepithelial and mesangial electron dense deposits. Rapid and irreversible worsening of graft function led to resumption of haemodialysis on 31 May 1999. We speculated that this case was an atypical form of de novo Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) in transplanted kidney because of the histopathological findings of the allograft biopsy and clinical symptoms.
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14/52. heme oxygenase-1 deficiency: the first autopsy case.

    This article describes the first autopsy case of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 deficiency. A 6-year-old boy who presented with growth retardation; anemia; leukocytosis; thrombocytosis; coagulation abnormality; elevated levels of haptoglobin, ferritin, and heme in serum; a low serum bilirubin concentration; and hyperlipidemia was diagnosed as HO-1 deficient by gene analysis several months before death. autopsy showed amyloid deposits in the liver and adrenal glands and mesangioproliferative glomerular changes in kidneys, in addition to an irregular distribution of foamy macrophages with iron pigments. Fatty streaks and fibrous plaques were noted in the aorta. Compared with HO-1--targeted mice, the present case seems to more severely involve endothelial cells and the reticuloendothelial system, resulting in intravascular hemolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and amyloidosis with a short survival. This contrasts to the predominant iron metabolic disorders of HO-1--targeted mice with a long survival.
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15/52. Type I membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in an hiv-infected individual without hepatitis c co-infection.

    Type I membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is an uncommon manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-associated renal disease in patients co-infected with hepatitis c virus (HCV). We describe a case of Type I MPGN in an hiv-positive diabetic man with nephrotic-range proteinuria and renal insufficiency who was not co-infected with HCV. Tubuloreticular inclusions were present but there was no evidence for either cryoglobulinemia or cryoglobulin deposits in the kidney. This finding suggests that Type I MPGN may represent a reaction of the kidney to hiv independent of the effects of HCV co-infection. Clinical suspicion must be maintained for Type I MPGN in all hiv infected patients presenting with significant proteinuria regardless of HCV infection status.
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16/52. Combined liver-kidney transplantation in a 15-year-old boy with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Alpha1-antitrypsin (1-AT) deficiency is the most common genetic cause of liver disease in infants and children. The major clinical manifestations include liver disease (primarily in children) and emphysema in adults. For patients who progress to cirrhosis and liver failure, liver transplantation provides a metabolic cure for the deficiency and presumably prevents the associated complications. Several case reports in the pediatric literature describe glomerulonephritis in the setting of severe 1-AT deficiency, but this association is less well documented in adults. End-stage chronic kidney disease is a rare finding in the literature and kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice. We report on a 15-year-old boy with 1-AT deficiency and consequent end-stage liver disease and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis rapidly progressing to renal failure, who successfully underwent combined liver-kidney transplantation.
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keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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17/52. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with low-grade B cell lymphoma presenting in the kidney.

    Low-grade B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated tissue type (MALToma) rarely may involve the kidney. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is an uncommon complication of B cell lymphoma and may be related to cryoglobulin and/or immunoglobulin synthesis by a secretory B cell clone. We report 2 patients with the novel renal biopsy findings of coexistent MALToma and MPGN. Both subjects presented with nephrotic proteinuria and renal insufficiency. One patient had a serum M protein (IgG K) but neither individual had any other clinical or serologic evidence of systemic disease, including hematolymphoid malignancy, autoimmune disease, cryoglobulinemia, or hepatitis c viral infection. Both renal biopsies demonstrated MPGN type I with immunoglobulin deposits that in 1 case showed light chain restriction (IgM K). Electron microscopy disclosed corresponding glomerular electron dense deposits in subendothelial locations. Both biopsies also contained atypical interstitial lymphoid infiltrates comprising marginal zone (centro-cyte-like) cells that infiltrated tubules and showed extra-capsular extension. Immunostains demonstrated a predominantly B cell population that lacked expression of CD5 and cycline D1, and gene rearrangement studies confirmed the presence of a monoclonal B cell population in both cases. These findings indicate that low-grade B cell lymphoma in the kidney may be an unexpected finding in patients with nephrotic syndrome related to MPGN. Immunophenotypic and gene rearrangement studies are important ancillary tools for the evaluation of atypical lymphoid infiltrates in kidney biopsies.
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18/52. MPGN type I induced by granulocyte colony stimulating factor.

    We report a girl with severe congenital neutropenia who has received long-term granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy and has developed macroscopic hematuria, proteinuria, and decreased renal function associated with biopsy-proven membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) type I. Temporary discontinuation of G-CSF therapy as well as the use of glycosylated G-CSF has resulted in improvement in renal manifestations. We postulate that the MPGN was G-CSF-induced. Long-term G-CSF therapy should be used with great caution and close surveillance of kidney function.
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19/52. Management of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II with plasmapheresis.

    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II (MPGN II) is a rare kidney disease identified microscopically by electron-dense deposits surrounded by complement component C3 in glomerular basement membranes. MPGN II usually leads to renal failure, and patients with MPGN II experience a high rate of recurrence following renal transplantation. No treatment modalities have been proven successful if recurrence does occur. The sera of most patients with MPGN II contain complement c3 nephritic factor (C3NF), an IgG autoantibody directed against C3 convertase (C3bBb) that results in constitutive breakdown of C3. C3NF may be important in the pathogenesis of the disease. Since C3NF is IgG, we predicted that C3NF could be removed from the serum through plasmapheresis. We describe the use of long-term plasmapheresis to maintain good renal function in a 15-year-old girl with rapidly progressive recurrent MPGN II. After 73 plasmapheresis procedures over 63 weeks, her serum creatinine remained stable, and her creatinine clearance trended upward. Serial biopsies of the transplanted kidney demonstrated persistent MPGN II but no development of tubular atrophy. During the course of therapy, serum C3NF activity decreased; furthermore, C3NF activity was detected in the removed plasma. We have shown that plasmapheresis is a safe and effective method for delaying the onset of chronic renal failure in recurrent MPGN II. The efficacy may be due to the removal of serum C3NF.
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keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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20/52. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis develops in a child with autologous stem cell transplant.

    Bone marrow transplant nephropathy is a known complication of bone marrow transplantation. bone marrow transplantation can cause various rare kidney diseases such as membranous nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is rare in children. Here the authors report on a 5-year-old pediatric autologous stem cell recipient, in whom type I membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis developed 111 days after bone marrow transplantation and presented with hematuria, hypertension, proteinuria, and renal failure.
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keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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