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1/13. Immunotactoid glomerulopathy with massive bone marrow deposits in a patient with IgM kappa monoclonal gammopathy and hypocomplementemia.

    A case of immunotactoid glomerulopathy with an amyloid-like material in the glomeruli and bone marrow is described. Clinically the patient was diagnosed as having severe nephrotic syndrome, hypocomplementemia, and IgM kappa monoclonal gammopathy. Immunotactoid glomerulopathy is an unusual cause of glomerulonephritis, characterized by congo red-negative, amyloid-like deposits in the glomeruli. This unusual case presentation shows that immunotactoid glomerulopathy may be a manifestation of systemic disease. This patient also presented with hypocomplementemia, an extremely rare associated finding that has been reported previously in only four cases of immunotactoid glomerulopathy.
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2/13. heme oxygenase-1 deficiency: the first autopsy case.

    This article describes the first autopsy case of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 deficiency. A 6-year-old boy who presented with growth retardation; anemia; leukocytosis; thrombocytosis; coagulation abnormality; elevated levels of haptoglobin, ferritin, and heme in serum; a low serum bilirubin concentration; and hyperlipidemia was diagnosed as HO-1 deficient by gene analysis several months before death. autopsy showed amyloid deposits in the liver and adrenal glands and mesangioproliferative glomerular changes in kidneys, in addition to an irregular distribution of foamy macrophages with iron pigments. Fatty streaks and fibrous plaques were noted in the aorta. Compared with HO-1--targeted mice, the present case seems to more severely involve endothelial cells and the reticuloendothelial system, resulting in intravascular hemolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and amyloidosis with a short survival. This contrasts to the predominant iron metabolic disorders of HO-1--targeted mice with a long survival.
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3/13. Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis after bone marrow transplantation.

    A 15-year-old boy developed nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure 4 years after allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for lymphoid crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia. On admission, he presented with clinical features of chronic GVHD including transient exacerbation of cholestatic liver injury. Renal biopsy showed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis with cellular crescents. The patient was treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy (1 g/day, for 3 days) followed by oral prednisolone. Renal function gradually improved but nephrotic state was persistent. A second renal biopsy showed improvement of acute tubular necrosis and endocapillary proliferation and transformation of crescents into a fibrous form. After tapering of oral prednisolone, cyclophosphamide was started, which resulted in a gradual improvement of proteinuria. Several cases of nephrotic syndrome occurring after BMT have already been reported, but most cases had membranous nephropathy. In our case, renal biopsy revealed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis with findings of active cellular immunity, and aggressive treatment resulted in attenuation of these findings. Moreover, chronic GVHD-related liver injury was noted at the time of this episode. Our findings suggest that chronic GVHD may be complicated with diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis through unknown cellular immune mechanism.
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4/13. Renal involvement in monoclonal (type I) cryoglobulinemia: two cases associated with IgG3 kappa cryoglobulin.

    Renal involvement has been described rarely in monoclonal (type I) cryoglobulinemia, although this complication is frequent among patients with mixed (type II or III) cryoglobulin. We report two patients with glomerulonephritis and monoclonal IgGkappa cryoglobulin. Both patients presented with nephrotic syndrome, microscopic hematuria, and impaired renal function. hepatitis c serology was negative, bone marrow aspiration was normal, and the renal biopsy specimen showed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with glomerular subendothelial deposits of monoclonal IgGkappa. In both cases, circulating cryoglobulin and monotypic tissue deposits were found to be IgG3kappa, suggesting that this isotype may have a particular propensity to cause this type of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Although 18 cases of type I cryoglobulinemia with biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis have been reported to date, this is the first characterization of immunoglobulin heavy-chain isotype in this disease.
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5/13. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis develops in a child with autologous stem cell transplant.

    Bone marrow transplant nephropathy is a known complication of bone marrow transplantation. bone marrow transplantation can cause various rare kidney diseases such as membranous nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is rare in children. Here the authors report on a 5-year-old pediatric autologous stem cell recipient, in whom type I membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis developed 111 days after bone marrow transplantation and presented with hematuria, hypertension, proteinuria, and renal failure.
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6/13. Idiopathic myelofibrosis associated with renal extramedullary hematopoiesis and nephrotic syndrome: case report.

    Idiopathic myelofibrosis is characterized by bone marrow fibrosis, anemia, leukoerythroblastosis, and extramedullary hematopoiesis in many organs. Renal abnormalities in idiopathic myelofibrosis have been rarely described in the literature and include extramedullary hematopoiesis in the pararenal or retroperitoneal areas resulting in obstructive uropathy and hemtopoietic cell infiltration in tubulointerstitial area and urolithiasis. These lead to azotemia or acute renal failure, which may respond well to radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of nephrotic syndrome associated with glomerulonephritis in a myelofibrosis patient; however, no effective treatment was described. Herein, we report the case of a patient with idiopathic myelofibrosis who initially presented with hepatomegaly, anemia, and leukoerythroblastosis. A nephrotic syndrome developed 7 years after initial diagnosis. Renal biopsy disclosed the unique pathological finding of simultaneous mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, renal extramedullary hematopoiesis, and gouty nephropathy. Despite treatment with busulfan, proteinuria persisted that implied irreversible glomerular injury and a terminal prognosis. We focus on the unusual pathological finding and the association between nephrotic syndrome and idiopathic myelofibrosis.
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7/13. hypersensitivity syndrome and pure red cell aplasia following allopurinol therapy in a patient with chronic kidney disease.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a rare case of combined hypersensitivity syndrome and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) following allopurinol therapy. CASE SUMMARY: A 43-year-old woman with underlying mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis developed fever, generalized morbilliform rash, leukocytosis with marked eosinophilia, and hepatic dysfunction 3 weeks after starting allopurinol therapy (300 mg/day for 3 days followed by 200 mg/day) for hyperuricemia and arthritis. The clinical findings were judged to be a probable drug reaction according to the Naranjo probability scale. The drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) resolved after withdrawal of allopurinol and initiation of systemic corticosteroid therapy. However, there was progressive worsening of anemia with reticulocytopenia; PRCA was suspected. PRCA was judged to be a possible drug reaction according to the Naranjo probability scale. The patient refused blood transfusion and bone marrow biopsy. Recombinant human erythropoietin was initiated in addition to prednisolone 15 mg daily. Eleven days later (approximately 7 wk after allopurinol withdrawal), both the hemoglobin level and reticulocyte count began to rise. The patient consented to a bone marrow study at that time, which confirmed the presence of dysplasia involving only the erythroid lineage. DISCUSSION: allopurinol may induce DHS, aplastic anemia, and, in rare instances, PRCA. We report the first case of PRCA concurrent with allopurinol-induced DHS in a patient with chronic kidney disease. Discontinuation of allopurinol is the first step in the treatment of such cases. The slow recovery of PRCA might be partly attributed to her underlying chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSIONS: To minimize serious DHS, proper indications for treatment and dosage adjustment should be closely observed when starting allopurinol therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease.
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8/13. A case of monoclonal immunoglobulin light- and heavy-chain deposition disease exhibiting atypical deposition with fibrillary structures, successfully treated with chemotherapy.

    We report a case of light and heavy chain deposition disease (LHCDD), a rather rare monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD) with successful therapeutic effect. A 58-year-old woman suffered from proteinuria and renal insufficiency (serum creatinine 1.0 mg/dl, creatinine clearance 49.2 ml/min) in February 2003. In serum and urine samples, monoclonal IgG-kappa was detected. A bone marrow aspiration showed a slightly hypocellular marrow and plasma cell population was increased to 7.0%. Renal histological findings revealed lobulated glomeruli with nodular lesions on light microscopy, characteristic findings of MIDD. Intense deposition of IgG heavy chains in the linear pattern in the glomerular and tubular basement membranes was observed. immunohistochemistry revealed both kappa and lambda light chain depositions in glomeruli. Electron-microscopic examination revealed fine granular electron-dense deposits accompanied by microfibrils. Based on these findings, this patient was diagnosed as LHCDD. She received three courses of melphalan and prednisone chemotherapy, resulting in disappearance of proteinuria, prevention of renal functional deterioration and the decrease of monoclonal immunoglobulin. This case clearly demonstrates that the earlier and accurate diagnosis and initiation of chemotherapy at the early stage with serum creatinine level below 4.0 mg/dl are necessary to improve renal and patient outcome.
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9/13. Phenotypic expression of factor H mutations in patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    We investigated the phenotypic expression of factor H mutations in two patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Factor H in serum was assayed by rocket immunoelectrophoresis, immunoblotting, and double immunodiffusion and in tissue by immunohistochemistry. Functional activity was analyzed by hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes and binding to endothelial cells. A homozygous mutation in complement control protein (CCP) domain 10 of factor H was identified in an adult man who first developed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and later HUS. C3 levels were very low. The patient had undetectable factor H levels in serum and a weak factor H 150 kDa band. Double immunodiffusion showed partial antigenic identity with factor H in normal serum owing to the presence of factor H-like protein 1. Strong specific labeling for factor H was detected in glomerular endothelium, mesangium and in glomerular and tubular epithelium as well as in bone marrow cells. A heterozygous mutation in CCP 20 of factor H was found in a girl with HUS. C3 levels were moderately decreased at onset. Factor H levels were normal and a normal 150 kDa band was present. Double immunodiffusion showed antigenic identity with normal factor H. Factor H labeling was minimal in the renal cortex. Factor H dysfunction was demonstrated by increased sheep erythrocyte hemolysis and decreased binding to endothelial cells. In summary, two different factor H mutations associated with HUS were examined: in one, factor H accumulated in cells, and in the other, membrane binding was reduced.
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10/13. Thrombotic microangiopathy isolated to the central nervous system.

    A man with plasma cell dyscrasia and bone marrow infiltration presented with rapidly progressive encephalopathy. magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple small areas of abnormal signal that correlated with the autopsy findings of thrombotic microangiopathy isolated to the central nervous system.
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