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11/238. sarcoidosis with membranous nephropathy and granulomatous interstitial nephritis.

    A 49-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed as sarcoidosis based on bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy and lung biopsy, presented increased serum creatinine and calcium concentrations. Renal biopsy showed the presence of interstitial nephritis with non-caseating epithelioid granuloma and focal membranous transformation. Therapy with prednisolone was effective in normalizing serum creatinine, serum calcium, serum angiotensin converting enzyme, and urine beta2 microglobulin, but these abnormalities reappeared after rapid withdrawal of prednisolone. This is a rare case of sarcoidosis manifested by both membranous nephropathy and granulomatous interstitial nephritis, and indicates the necessity of long-term treatment of corticosteroid.
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12/238. Pleural mesothelioma and membranous nephropathy.

    Underlying malignancy has been thought to be responsible for 5-10% of the cases of membranous nephropathy in adults, with the risk being highest in patients over the age of 60 years. Solid tumors such as carcinomas of lung or colon, are most often involved. It is presumed that tumor antigens are deposited in the glomeruli; this is followed by antibody deposition and complement activation, leading to epithelial cell and basement membrane injury and proteinuria due to the associated increase in glomerular permeability. We describe a patient with a resistant nephrotic syndrome and massive proteinuria due to membranous nephropathy associated with pleural mesothelioma.
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13/238. nephrotic syndrome due to membranous nephropathy associated with metastatic prostate cancer: rapid remission after initial endocrine therapy.

    A case of severe nephrotic syndrome (urinary protein excretion 12.9 g/day) due to membranous nephropathy associated with untreated prostate cancer and multiple bone metastases is described. A combination of initial endocrine treatment and steroid therapy resulted in normalization of prostate-specific antigen levels followed by a rapid decrease of urinary protein excretion within 4 months. No proteinuria was subsequently detected. Seven months after the initiation of therapy, the patient remained well with complete clinical remission from the nephrotic syndrome. This rapid achievement of remission may have been due to tumor shrinkage by androgen ablation in addition to steroid therapy of the membranous nephropathy. The nephrotic syndrome is a rare complication of prostate cancer, and, to the best of our knowledge, no previous cases have been reported of membranous nephropathy as one of the first disease manifestations.
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14/238. Membranous nephropathy and orbital malignant tumor.

    A 7-year-old girl with membranous nephropathy is reported who suffered 16 months later from an orbital rhabdomyosarcoma. proteinuria disappeared at the time of the remission of the tumor. Membranous nephropathy as paraneoplastic syndrome is exceptional in children, since only two other cases associated with a solid tumor have been reported in the literature.
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15/238. retroperitoneal fibrosis and membranous nephropathy.

    We report on a patient with a past history of Pott's abscess who suffered both from a retroperitoneal fibrosis and a membranous glomerulonephritis. Five cases of retroperitoneal fibrosis and immune complex glomerulonephritis are already reported in the literature. These associations might result from a particular systemic immune response to an unknown antigen. Consequently, we consider the role of tuberculosis in our case.
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16/238. Possible associations of rectal carcinoma with schistosoma japonicum infection and membranous nephropathy: a case report with a review.

    We report the first case of rectal carcinoma associated with S. japonicum and membranous nephropathy. A 57-year-old Japanese man noticed narrowing of his feces. He had lived in Yamanashi prefecture, an endemic area of S. japonicum. He had suffered from nephrotic syndrome for about 1 year. barium enema study showed a severe stricture in the upper rectum and biopsy specimens from the tumor demonstrated well differentiated adenocarcinoma and many ova of S. japonicum. Sonography of the liver showed a network pattern and a linear high echoic area. Low anterior resection with incisional biopsy of the liver and the right kidney was performed. Histopathological findings showed well differentiated adenocarcinoma and schistosomal ova. The total number of ova in the resected colon amounted to 15,133, consisting of 2243 inside and 12,890 outside the carcinoma. The nearer to the carcinoma the area was, the higher was the density of ova. The findings of light microscopy and electron microscopy of the biopsy specimen from the kidney were compatible with membranous nephropathy (stage II). This case suggests that schistosomal ova have some effect on carcinogenesis and nephrotic syndrome. In patients with nephrotic syndrome of unknown cause, especially in inhabitants of endemic areas of S. japonicum, gastrointestinal malignancy should be ruled out as an etiological factor. sigmoidoscopy would be useful for colorectal carcinoma surveillance in S. japonicum patients.
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17/238. Thin basement membrane disease and acute renal failure secondary to gross hematuria and tubular necrosis.

    A patient with thin basement membrane disease (TBMD), macroscopic hematuria, and acute renal failure is described. A renal biopsy showed massive occlusion of renal tubules by red blood cells and casts. This was accompanied by tubular cell damage consistent with acute tubular necrosis. The patient was receiving warfarin because of a history of deep venous thrombosis at the time he developed the acute renal failure. The possible relationship of the warfarin therapy to the TBMD, intratubular hemorrhage, and acute renal failure are discussed.
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18/238. nephrotic syndrome in a patient with iga deficiency-associated mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis.

    A case of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis in a 55-year-old woman with selective iga deficiency and serum antinuclear antibodies who presented with nephrotic syndrome is described. The patient did not have clinical or laboratory features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) other than antinuclear antibodies. histology of the patient's renal biopsy revealed a mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis and direct immunofluorescence showed that paramesangial deposits contained predominant IgM with lesser IgG, C3 and C1q. These findings are identical to those previously described in a form of glomerulonephritis associated with iga deficiency and would be atypical for lupus nephritis. glomerulonephritis is not a well recognized complication of iga deficiency, though it has been rarely reported in the literature. This case provides further evidence that iga deficiency is associated with a unique immune complex-mediated glomerulopathy with characteristic immunopathological and ultrastructural features. It is the first reported case to present with nephrotic syndrome.
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19/238. myasthenia gravis with membranous nephropathy, successfully treated with extended total thymectomy.

    A 46-year-old woman showed proteinuria and hematuria after left blepharoptosis, and revealed a histopathology of membranous nephropathy (MN) at renal biopsy. She was diagnosed as having myasthenia gravis (MG) because of a positive edrophonium test and anti-acetylcholine receptor (AchR) antibodies in serum. We found a decrease in anti-AchR antibodies after extended total thymectomy, in parallel with an improvement in both urinary findings and myasthenic symptoms. In this case, MG preceded MN and the thymectomy was effective for both diseases, suggesting that the thymus might play an important role in the pathogenesis of MN.
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20/238. chlorambucil-induced acute hepatic failure in a patient with membranous nephropathy.

    We present the case of a 23-year-old woman with membranous nephropathy who developed acute hepatic failure after being administered chlorambucil for a month.
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