Cases reported "Glomerulonephritis"

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1/48. Fibrillary-immunotactoid glomerulopathy with renal deposits of IgAlambda: a rare cause of glomerulonephritis.

    We describe a 24-year-old patient who presented with a nephrotic syndrome. His renal biopsy revealed a diffuse mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis with eosinophilic deposits. Electron microscopy showed organized, Congo-red negative deposits, forming microtubules of about 20 nm width in the capillary walls and in the mesangium, establishing a diagnosis of fibrillary-immunotactoid glomerulopathy. Fibrillary-immunotactoid glomerulopathy is a rare cause of glomerulonephritis, characterized by Congo-red-negative glomerular deposits of fibrils, sometimes organized in microtubules, predominantly containing IgG and C3. patients clinically present with the nephrotic syndrome, hematuria and hypertension. The pathogenesis of this glomerulopathy has not been elucidated yet. In our patient, the renal deposits contained IgAlambda. This peculiar feature is suggestive of an underlying paraproteinemia. However, in the serum no paraproteins or cryoglobulins were found, and also microscopical examination and immunophenotyping of the bone marrow did not point to the presence of a monoclonal plasma cell dyscrasia. Our patient was not treated with immunosuppressive drugs and he is currently progressing to end-stage renal disease.
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2/48. Iga nephropathy, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and crescentic glomerulonephritis in a patient with the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is an uncommon cause of renal dysfunction. Because of the risk of bleeding in this condition, few patients have undergone a renal biopsy. Renal dysfunction has been attributed to the deposition of ceroid pigment in the tubules and interstitial fibrosis. We report a case with renal biopsy findings of ceroid deposition and interstitial fibrosis, but also of mesangial IgA deposition, crescentic glomerulonephritis, and an interstitial lymphocytic infiltrate. Furthermore, perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies of the IgG subclass were detected in a blood sample. It is well known that ceroid pigment in this syndrome accumulates in monocytes, macrophages and T lymphocytes and it has been suggested that this may affect their function. We suggest that this novel combination of renal changes might be explained on the basis of alterations in immune mechanisms in the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome.
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3/48. Immunohistochemical analysis of human serum sickness glomerulonephritis.

    AIM: To analyze pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of glomerulonephritis in human serum sickness. methods: Renal biopsy specimens from two female patients with serum sickness that ensued after application of anti-lymphocyte horse globulin for aplastic anemia were analyzed by light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. To prove the depositions of foreign protein, frozen sections were incubated with fluorescein-conjugated anti-horse protein serum. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on B5-fixed paraplast-embedded tissue or frozen acetone-fixed sections with the primary antibodies for molecules/cell markers CD35, CD43, CD45RO, CD68, CD2, lysozime, L26, and S100. RESULTS: Diffuse proliferating and necrotizing glomerulonephritis with crescents was found. There were coarse granular mesangial, subepithelial, subendothelial, and intramembranaceous deposits of mainly horse globulin, C3, and IgG. Most mesangium infiltrating cells were macrophages and t-lymphocytes. Electron microscopy revealed hypertrophy of podocytes, but immunohistochemistry did not show their normal CD35 (C3b-receptor) staining. Apart from epithelial cells, main crescent forming cells were macrophages and t-lymphocytes. Rare dendritic cells and abundant infiltration of macrophages, t-lymphocytes, and neutrophiles were found in the interstitium. CONCLUSION: In severe serum sickness, glomeruli and tubuli are destroyed beyond the range usually seen in other types of glomerulonephritis caused by immune complexes, except in cases with widespread crescents. hypertrophy of podocytes and loss of their normal C3b-receptor staining has not yet been described in the literature. C3b-receptors on podocytes could play a role in pathogenesis of glomerular injury caused by immune complexes.
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4/48. Beta-2 microglobulin amyloidosis presenting as bilateral ovarian masses: a case report and review of the literature.

    We report a case of systemic beta-2 microglobulin amyloidosis (B2M) in which the initial clinical presentation was that of bilateral ovarian masses. A 56-year-old woman who had been on renal dialysis for 12 years because of familial glomerulonephritis underwent a total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for suspected ovarian malignancy. Pathologic findings included extensive amyloid infiltration of both ovaries, fallopian tubes, and focal perivascular deposition in the myometrium. The diagnosis of amyloidosis was confirmed with congo red stain, B2M immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Systemic amyloidosis in renal dialysis patients commonly presents as bone and/or joint disease, although visceral involvement has been reported. This is the first report in the English language literature to describe amyloidosis presenting as bilateral ovarian masses.
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5/48. Molecular study of an IgG1kappa cryoglobulin yielding organized microtubular deposits and glomerulonephritis in the course of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    glomerulonephritis with organized microtubular monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits (GOMMID) and glomerulonephritis related to type I cryoglobulin are well-known but rare complications of B cell derived chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. In these disorders, monoclonal Ig have never been studied at the molecular level. We conducted a pathological and molecular analysis in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, glomerulonephritis and a single circulating monoclonal Ig. Unusual IgG1kappa kidney deposits were observed. The heavy and light chain variable region sequences of that cryoprecipitating monoclonal Ig were characterized. light microscopy revealed glomerulonephritis typical of cryoglobulinaemia, with neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, endocapillary hyperplasia and few protein thrombi. Electron microscopic study clearly evidenced numerous subepithelial mixed granular and organized deposits with a unique microtubular organization, reminiscent of the GOMMID. The Ig molecule sequence revealed alterations of charge and hydrophobicity potentially promoting a crystal-like aggregation and the aggregation of microtubules.This description suggests that common mechanisms are involved in various forms of precipitation and/or deposition of complete Ig molecules, with a variable extent of organization and with a possible overlap between pathological patterns of either glomerulonephritis with microtubular deposits or type I cryoglobulinic glomerulonephritis.
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6/48. Superimposition of post-streptococcal acute glomerulonephritis on the course of IgA nephropathy: predominance of Th1 type immune response.

    A 23-year-old man was admitted with macrohematuria and systemic edema appearing after an acute upper respiratory tract infection. He had been diagnosed 6 years earlier with IgA nephropathy (IgA-N). On admission, hypertension, nephrotic syndrome and hypocomplementemia were evident together with a high titer of anti-streptokinase (ASK). Renal biopsy showed severe glomerular mesangial proliferation, segmental endocapillary proliferation and crescent formation. Immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) showed strong deposition of C3 and reduced deposition of IgA. Electron microscopy showed a so-called "hump" on the epithelial side of the glomerular basement membrane.These features were consistent with post-streptococcal acute glomerulonephritis (PSAGN) superimposed on IgA-N. Following 2 weeks of observation, blood pressure, C3 level and ASK titer returned to normal ranges, although nephrotic syndrome was still evident, which necessitated oral prednisolone (30 mg/day) therapy. Another biopsy taken 2 months later demonstrated regression of endocapillary proliferation and IF showed decreased deposition of C3. Immunohistochemical staining of the specimen taken on admission revealed the presence of numerous T cells and macrophages in the interstitium. macrophages were also seen in the glomerular tuft. Many interstitial infiltrating cells were positive for interferon-gamma, but their number diminished after treatment. Our findings suggest that PSAGN complicating pre-existing IgA-N activates cellular immunity and augments renal tissue injury.
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7/48. Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency presenting with hypercalcemia in a patient on long-term hemodialysis.

    The authors report on a 44-year-old female hemodialysis (HD) patient who presented with hypercalcemia secondary to isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. She had been suffering from nausea and abdominal pain caused by recurrent esophageal ulcer. Blood calcium (Ca) adjusted for serum albumin concentration was increased to 14.9 mg/dL (3.72 mmol/L) concurrently with fever and hypotension. Serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide was not elevated, but serum intact PTH and 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 were decreased to 31 pg/mL (ng/L) and 8.1 pg/mL (2.6 pmol/L), respectively. Endocrinologic examination found that plasma ACTH was reduced below 5.0 pg/mL (0.22 pmol/L). A single ACTH stimulation normally increased blood cortisol, whereas a single corticotropin-releasing hormone injection failed to increase plasma ACTH and cortisol. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging disclosed no enlargement of pituitary gland. Circulating bone formation and absorption markers were not elevated. Blood Ca was normalized shortly after pamidronate disodium administration without glucocorticoid supplementation. This case suggested that secondary adrenal insufficiency caused by isolated ACTH deficiency could be an occult cause of severe hypercalcemia in HD subjects.
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8/48. Immune-mediated neuropathy and myopathy in post-streptococcal disease: electron-microscopical, morphometrical and immunohistochemical studies.

    A 22-year-old man suffered from a complete flaccid tetraparesis and an immune complex-mediated rapid progressive glomerulonephritis after group A streptococcal infection. Serum creatine kinase was excessively elevated and myoglobinuria occurred. Nerve conduction studies revealed evidence of axonal neuropathy. Recovery was satisfactory within 18 months. sural nerve and peroneus muscle biopsies were performed in the 4th and 14th week of the disease. light microscopy of the sural nerve showed an incipient axonal type of neuropathy in the first biopsy. Ultrastructurally, wallerian degeneration and endoneurial inflammatory cells were present. In the muscle biopsy, few atrophic fibers and altered blood vessels without further anomalies were found. In the second sural nerve biopsy, macrophages were numerous, some of which were immunoreactive for HLA-DR, and only a few myelinated and some unmyelinated nerve fibers remained. Muscle fibers in the second biopsy showed high-grade atrophy and myofibrillar abnormalities. immunohistochemistry revealed diffuse endoneurial immunoglobulin deposition in the first sample, while in the later biopsy specimen, deposits of IgG, and kappa and lambda light chains were visible in circumscribed endoneurial areas. Immune-mediated neuropathy and myopathy are not well-known complications of streptococcal disease. This is, to our knowledge, the first detailed report on morphological findings in muscle and nerve in such a disorder.
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9/48. Unusual IgM fibrillar deposits in glomerulonephritis: ultrastructural and diffraction studies in a case report.

    Morphological examination of 2 renal biopsy specimens obtained from a 69-year-old woman with a nephrotic syndrome, high blood pressure, and a reduced glomerular filtration rate revealed, in ultrastructural study, a type of a glomerulonephritis with fibrillar deposits in a subendothelial position which were unusual in their immunoglobulin components (mainly IgM). The fibrillar components were of irregular size, 13 to 18 nm in diameter and presented a very particular "barbed wire" morphological aspect, not hitherto described. Diffraction studies and image analysis, revealed spiraled fibrils with regular alternating elements that we suggest may correspond to IgM molecules. The clinical (isolated renal symptoms) and laboratory (traces of 3 monoclonal components in the serum and 2 normal bone marrow biopsy specimens) data provided no evidence of hematopoietic malignancy, viral hepatitis or cryoglobulinemia.
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10/48. Immunoglobulin gamma3-heavy-chain deposition disease: report of a case and relationship with hypocomplementemia.

    The authors describe a 54-year-old woman presenting with proteinuria, hematuria, and hypocomplementemia whose renal biopsy results showed diffuse increase in mesangial matrix and nodular formations in several glomeruli with the deposition of immunoglobulin gamma3-heavy-chain and complement components C1q and C3 in the glomeruli and on the tubular basement membranes, without associated light-chain deposits. Staining for the constant domains of gamma-heavy-chain showed a deletion of the first constant domain (CH1). These findings were consistent with those of gamma-heavy-chain deposition disease (gamma-HCDD). The patient was treated monthly with melphalan and prednisolone although a bone marrow aspirate did not show findings suggestive of plasmacytoma. Six courses of melphalan and prednisolone therapy resulted in a marked reduction of urinary protein excretion and marked rise of complement levels. The current case is the fourth HCDD patient reported featuring gamma3-heavy-chain deposition who showed severe hypocomplementemia and responded to chemotherapy with improved renal parameters and complement levels. A review of previously reported cases of HCDD showed that some but not all HCDD cases were associated with hypocomplementemia. The authors also discuss here the relationship of HCDD to hypocomplementemia.
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