Cases reported "Glomerulonephritis"

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1/7. Fibrillary-immunotactoid glomerulopathy with renal deposits of IgAlambda: a rare cause of glomerulonephritis.

    We describe a 24-year-old patient who presented with a nephrotic syndrome. His renal biopsy revealed a diffuse mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis with eosinophilic deposits. Electron microscopy showed organized, congo-red negative deposits, forming microtubules of about 20 nm width in the capillary walls and in the mesangium, establishing a diagnosis of fibrillary-immunotactoid glomerulopathy. Fibrillary-immunotactoid glomerulopathy is a rare cause of glomerulonephritis, characterized by congo-red-negative glomerular deposits of fibrils, sometimes organized in microtubules, predominantly containing IgG and C3. patients clinically present with the nephrotic syndrome, hematuria and hypertension. The pathogenesis of this glomerulopathy has not been elucidated yet. In our patient, the renal deposits contained IgAlambda. This peculiar feature is suggestive of an underlying paraproteinemia. However, in the serum no paraproteins or cryoglobulins were found, and also microscopical examination and immunophenotyping of the bone marrow did not point to the presence of a monoclonal plasma cell dyscrasia. Our patient was not treated with immunosuppressive drugs and he is currently progressing to end-stage renal disease.
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2/7. Molecular study of an IgG1kappa cryoglobulin yielding organized microtubular deposits and glomerulonephritis in the course of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    glomerulonephritis with organized microtubular monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits (GOMMID) and glomerulonephritis related to type I cryoglobulin are well-known but rare complications of B cell derived chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. In these disorders, monoclonal Ig have never been studied at the molecular level. We conducted a pathological and molecular analysis in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, glomerulonephritis and a single circulating monoclonal Ig. Unusual IgG1kappa kidney deposits were observed. The heavy and light chain variable region sequences of that cryoprecipitating monoclonal Ig were characterized. light microscopy revealed glomerulonephritis typical of cryoglobulinaemia, with neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, endocapillary hyperplasia and few protein thrombi. Electron microscopic study clearly evidenced numerous subepithelial mixed granular and organized deposits with a unique microtubular organization, reminiscent of the GOMMID. The Ig molecule sequence revealed alterations of charge and hydrophobicity potentially promoting a crystal-like aggregation and the aggregation of microtubules.This description suggests that common mechanisms are involved in various forms of precipitation and/or deposition of complete Ig molecules, with a variable extent of organization and with a possible overlap between pathological patterns of either glomerulonephritis with microtubular deposits or type I cryoglobulinic glomerulonephritis.
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3/7. glomerulonephritis with microtubular deposits associated with cryoglobulinemia and chronic active hepatitis.

    A 65-year-old-woman presented with edema, ascites, proteinuria and abnormal liver function tests. A small amount of mixed cryoglobulin was detected in her serum. Liver biopsy revealed mild chronic active hepatitis, but tests for hepatotropic viral infection were negative. Electron microscopy of the renal biopsy revealed glomerular electron-dense deposits that contained numerous tubular structures. Renal amyloidosis and light chain deposition disease were ruled out by appropriate histological techniques. The ultrastructural findings of renal biopsy suggested either cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis or immunotactoid glomerulopathy. Although the exact interrelationship among the peculiar glomerulopathy, cryoglobulinemia and chronic active hepatitis in the present case remains undetermined, this report enlarges the spectrum of glomerulopathy characterized by extracellular deposition of microtubules.
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4/7. Immunotactoid glomerulopathy with leucocytoclastic skin vasculitis and hypocomplementemia: a case report.

    Immunotactoid glomerulopathy is a recently described entity characterized clinically by proteinuria, hematuria and hypertension, and on renal biopsy by various glomerular lesions including extracellular microtubules composed of immune reactants. Furthermore a defined immunological disease or cryoglobulinemia are absent. We report the case of a patient with immunotactoid glomerulopathy and hypocomplementemia (low C3 level) who developed several episodes of leucocytoclastic skin vasculitis with large immune deposits in and around small vessels. It is suggested that skin and renal involvement are part of the same systemic disease.
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5/7. Megathrombocytopenia associated with glomerulonephritis, deafness and aortic cystic medianecrosis.

    Macrothrombocytopenia associated with glomerulonephritis and deafness has only been reported in a few patients since it was first described in 1972. We present a patient with macrothrombocytopenia, glomerulonephritis, progressive uraemia and progressive sensorineural deafness associated with cystic medianecrosis of the ascending aorta and malformation of the aortic valves. The patient had consistently low platelet counts but no clinical signs of a defect haemostasis. The giant platelets were characterized by their size, averaging 11 micron in diameter, elaborate maze-like membrane formations, abundance of microtubules, and the total absence of very dense granules.
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6/7. Immunotactoid glomerulopathy with unusually thick extracellular microtubules and nodular glomerulosclerosis in a diabetic patient.

    It has recently been suggested that immunotactoid glomerulopathy be separated from much more common fibrillary glomerulonephritis by ultrastructural features of highly organized immune deposits containing tubules of more than 30 nm in diameter. We report and discuss the results of a light, immunofluorescence and electron microscopic study of a needle renal biopsy from a 75-year-old, non-insulin dependant diabetic female presented with nephrotic syndrome, hypertension and a progressive renal failure. A unique coexistence of nodular glomerulosclerosis, as traditionally ascribed to diabetes with a peculiar type of immunotactoid glomerulopathy was confirmed by the exclusion of amyloidosis, monoclonal gammopathies, systemic autoimmune diseases and cryoglobulinemia. Mesangial, scattered subepithelial and segmentally prominent subendothelial immune deposits were found highly organized in mostly parallel arrays of 40 to 91 nm thick tubules. The average thickness of 67 nm exceeds the average diameter of tubules in all other 11 published cases of immunotactoid glomerulopathy to date. By immunofluorescence, predominantly capillary wall, thick, ribbon-like glomerular deposits contained IgG, IgM, kappa and lambda light chains of equal intensity, C3, C4 and fibrin related antigens. Mild to moderate glomerular cell proliferation associated with nodular sclerosis has been assumed to be causally related to immunotactoid deposits.
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7/7. Familial glomerulonephritis characterized by massive deposits of fibronectin.

    In recent years more than 150 cases of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of irregularly arranged fibrils have been documented. In the majority of these cases immunoglobulins and complement are the prime constituents of these deposits. We recently made a diagnosis of fibrillary glomerulonephritis without immunoglobulin deposition in two members of a family, a father and a son. In the father, proteinuria was first discovered 18 years ago. In 1985 he was referred to our outpatient clinic because of hypertension and increasing proteinuria. From that time onward he was regularly seen for blood pressure control. Nephrotic-range proteinuria persisted, without hardly any evidence of deterioration of renal function. Renal biopsies were performed in 1985 and 1993. His son underwent a renal biopsy in 1993 because of moderate proteinuria. The biopsies of both patients disclosed a distinct form of fibrillary glomerulonephritis that was characterized by massive deposits of a homogeneous, eosinophilic material in the mesangial and subendothelial areas. Staining for amyloid was negative. Immunofluorescence revealed that the biopsy specimens only stained faintly for immunoglobulins, complement factors C1q and C3, the extracellular matrix proteins, collagen IV, and laminin. However, they strongly stained for fibronectin. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for cell-derived fibronectin (IST-9) and plasma- and cell-derived fibronectin (IST-4), in the biopsy of the son we demonstrated that the fibronectin deposited in the glomeruli was mainly derived from the plasma, and to a lesser extent from resident glomerular cells. In addition, a moderate staining for amyloid P and vitronectin also was present. No or minor enhanced staining for collagen I, III, or V, heparan sulfate proteoglycan or its glycosaminoglycan side chains, tenascin, or thrombospondin could be observed. By electron microscopy the deposits in the mesangium and the subendothelial spaces appeared focally to be composed of irregularly arranged fibrils or microtubules 10 to 12 nm in diameter. Fibrillary glomerulonephritis with massive deposits of fibronectin represents a rare form of familial glomerulonephritis. In our patients the glomerulonephritis has an indolent course with hardly any deterioration of renal function.
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