Cases reported "Glomerulonephritis"

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1/10. Familial lobular glomerulopathy: first case report in asia.

    A 23-year-old male Japanese student presented a unique lobular glomerulopathy characterized by mesangial and subendothelial expansion with numerous periodic acid-Schiff-positive deposits. Electron microscopy showed massive fine granular deposits with a homogeneous distribution. Fibrillar or microtubular structures were not demonstrated. Fibronectin was positive on immunostaining, as was immunoglobulin g and fibrinogen. Familial study revealed that the patient's grandfather, two aunts, and one cousin on his father's side had developed end-stage renal failure. Clinicopathologic features of this patient are identical with those of familial lobular glomerulopathy, which has been previously described by several investigators. Seven of the previously reported families were white and resided in the united states or in European countries. This is the first report of an Asian case, and indicates that this disease universally occurs independently of racial specificity.
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2/10. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and systemic vasculitis: update of assays, immunopathogenesis, controversies, and report of a novel de novo ANCA-associated vasculitis after kidney transplantation.

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), their major autoantigens, disease associations, and pathophysiology in systemic vasculitides. To describe a patient with a novel de novo ANCA-associated vasculitis after kidney transplantation. methods: We reviewed and compiled the literature on ANCA-related topics and systemic vasculitis. Laboratory and clinical data from a cadaveric kidney transplant patient who developed necrotizing vasculitis involving glomerular capillaries, with crescent formation associated with P-ANCA and myeloperoxidase, were analyzed. RESULTS: Large-scale multi-center testing of patient and normal sera by the European ANCA Assay Standardization Project using immunofluorescence assays and enzyme immunoassays indicate the assays have good sensitivity and specificity, and diagnostic utility for ANCA-associated vasculitis. A few investigations covering basic and clinical research with ANCA remain controversial: whether endothelial cells do or do not express a 29-kd neutral serine protease termed proteinase-3 (PR-3), the target of ANCA in most individuals with Wegener's granulomatosis, and whether anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) ANCAs recognize a restricted number of epitopes on MPO. This issue has relevance for using monoclonal antibodies to treat patients with vasculitis who have adverse effects from immunosuppressive drugs. The two allelic forms of FcgammaRIIa (H131/R131) and the two of FcgammaRIIlb (NA1/NA2) are discussed as possible inheritable genetic elements for vasculitic disorders and for signaling responses. Stimulatory and costimulatory molecules, and cytokine profiles of T lymphocytes are characterized to show that these cells are actively involved in the ANCA-associated vasculitides. The patient described had a de novo ANCA associated small vessel vasculitis which developed after renal transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: There have been significant advances in the development of sensitive and specific ANCA assays. The immunopathogenetic mechanism of ANCA involves the constitutive FcgammaRs, ligands, and signaling responses to activate cytokine-primed neutrophils. This may lead to the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates, degranulation, and secretion of intracellular granule contents, and ultimately inflammation and vasculitis.
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3/10. renal artery stenosis modifies glomerular injury in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated disease.

    A 68-year-old man presented with renal failure, heart failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, and a pulmonary infiltrate. Serologic evaluation revealed a perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) at a titer of 1:1280, which on immunoblot and enzyme immunoassay showed antimyeloperoxidase specificity. autopsy showed microscopic polyarteritis based on the presence of necrotizing alveolitis and crescentic glomerulonephritis. The extent and activity of the glomerular disease was modified by a right renal artery stenosis (RAS). Twenty percent of glomeruli on the right and 82% glomeruli on the left contained crescentic lesions. Furthermore, predominantly active lesions were associated with renal artery stenosis, while the contralateral kidney contained mostly organized crescents. This observation suggests that hemodynamic factors or its sequelae can influence the onset and severity of ANCA-associated disease.
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4/10. Dense deposit disease: long term follow-up of three cases of recurrence after transplantation.

    The incidence and early recurrence after transplantation prove the specificity of the appearance of an electron dense alteration of kidney basement membrane often called dense intra-membranous deposit disease. Three new cases with dense deposit disease affecting the original kidneys have been followed-up after transplantation for periods ranging from 4 to 8 years and illustrate the natural history of the recurrence. Serial kidney biopsies showed the predominance of dense deposits near the mesangial area and the vascular pole. These deposits were also seen in some tubular basement membranes. Absence of cell proliferation was noted in all biopsies performed. Immunofluorescence studies revealed fixation of C3 alone. Histological signs of recurrence are compatible with the absence of clinical and biological signs. Transient or permanent proteinuria and microhematuria were common findings. serum complement levels, measured after transplantation, were low in all three cases. Despite recurrence of the original glomerulonephritis, long-term survival of the graft was commonly observed, two cases being followed-up for 7 and 8 years. patients with dense intra-membranous deposits glomerulonephritis should not be excluded from a transplantation program. One of the three cases reported here illustrates the exceptional association of recurrence of dense intramembranous deposits, de novo membranous glomerulonephritis and chronic rejection.
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5/10. Membranous glomerulonephritis associated with industrial mercury exposure. Study of pathogenetic mechanisms.

    The nephrotoxicity associated with mercury may be manifested as either acute tubular necrosis or an immune complex glomerulonephritis, depending upon the conditions under which the patient is exposed to the metal. Two patients with industrial exposure to mercury developed the nephrotic syndrome due to membranous glomerulonephritis. A multidisciplinary approach was used to define more precisely the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the production of the glomerular lesion. Although glomeruli were normal by light microscopy, immunohistochemical studies demonstrated confluent finely granular epimembranous deposits of IgG and C3. This distribution was confirmed at the ultrastructural level with immunoelectron microscopy. High resolution elemental analysis of electron dense inclusions in tubular epithelial phagolysosomes demonstrated energy dispersion spectra characteristic of coexisting mercury and selenium. Eluates from the biopsy material were not immunoreactive against normal rat or human kidney. There was no immunoreactivity of epimembranous deposits with antibodies having renal tubular epithelial antigen or urinary uromucoid specificity. These observations suggest that a distinctive immunopathologic lesion is associated with mercury-associated membraneous glomerulonephritis, that the role of the metal itself may only be coincidental, and that the involved antigen remains unknown. prednisone therapy had no documented persistent beneficial influence upon the level of proteinuria in one patient who has been lost to follow-up. In one patient not treated with steroid therapy, withdrawal of exposure to the metal resulted in disappearance of mercury from body fluids and clinical remission.
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6/10. plasmapheresis in rapidly progressive Henoch-Schoenlein glomerulonephritis and the effect on circulating IgA immune complexes.

    Two adult patients with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis were treated with plasmapheresis. One patient also received cyclophosphamide. Both patients recovered their renal function. Before plasmapheresis circulating IgA immune complexes were demonstrated in both patients by two assays with specificity for IgA. The level of IgA immune complexes decreased after each plasma exchange. IgA immune complexes disappeared in the patient who was treated with cyclophosphamide but remained present in the other patient. plasma exchange may be a useful form of therapy for patients with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura and progressive renal failure. Measurement of circulating IgA immune complexes may provide insight into the in vivo effect of plasmapheresis.
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7/10. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies with myeloperoxidase specificity in a patient with anti-glomerular basement membrane disease.

    An unusual case is described of a patient with both anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies with myeloperoxidase specificity (MPO-ANCA) presenting with acute renal failure. Four years before a seronegative arthritis of the left wrist was diagnosed. Tests for ANCA by indirect immunofluorescence were repeatedly negative. The diagnosis was made by renal biopsy and by testing the serum with specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for MPO-ANCA and anti-GBM antibodies. To our knowledge, this is the first patient presenting with such findings in the Dutch literature.
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8/10. Crescentic glomerulonephritis in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) was diagnosed in 2 young girls. In one of them, antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were strongly positive during the course of erosive polyarthritis. After 5 years followup, severe renal insufficiency occurred. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) were positive with a perinuclear pattern on indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and antimyeloperoxidase (MPO) specificity. Renal biopsy showed severe crescentic glomerulonephritis without significant deposits on IIF. Treatment consisted of prednisone and monthly intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse. Renal failure worsened and hemodialysis was necessary. A 2nd patient was referred for polyarthritis with positive rheumatoid factors without positive ANA. The presence of microscopic hematuria led to the discovery of crescentic glomerulonephritis with positive ANCA of anti-MPO specificity. At latest examination, after prednisone for 10 months and azathioprine for 6 months, the patient had moderate proteinuria with normal renal function. These observations emphasize that in juvenile onset chronic polyarthritis, renal microscopic angiitis with ANCA of anti-MPO specificity may occur.
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9/10. Identification of post-transplant anti-alpha 5 (IV) collagen alloantibodies in X-linked Alport syndrome.

    X-linked Alport syndrome (AS) is a heritable disorder which is associated with mutations in the type IV collagen alpha 5 (IV) chain gene (COL4A5) located on chromosome X. Following renal transplantation, an average of 6% of male AS patients develop anti-GBM nephritis. We studied the specificity of the antibodies against type IV collagen in the serum of a patient with COL4A5 partial deletion. The specificity of these alloantibodies was determined against collagenase-digested GBM, as well as against recombinant non-collagenous (NC1) domains of the type IV collagen alpha 1(IV)-alpha 6(IV) chains expressed in escherichia coli. immunoblotting and ELISA demonstrated that these antibodies bound specifically to the NC1 domain of alpha 5(IV) collagen. There was no binding to the NC1 domain of the other chains, including the Goodpasture antigen. Competitive ELISA confirmed the results obtained by ELISA and immunoblotting. This patient developed alloantibodies directed against antigens present in the grafted kidney, but absent from his Alport kidney. The pathogenesis of post-transplantation glomerulonephritis in the Alport patient studied is thus similar to that of Goodpasture syndrome, with the exception that the pathogenic antibodies are targeted to another alpha chain of type IV collagen.
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10/10. The presence of cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (C-ANCA) in the course of subacute bacterial endocarditis with glomerular involvement, coincidence or association?

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies positivity with cytoplasmic pattern (C-ANCA) and proteinase-3 (PR-3) specificity was found in two patients with both subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) and glomerular involvement. Renal biopsy showed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in one case and focal segmental glomerulonephritis in the second case. Immunofluorescence study showed granular immune deposits in both cases evocating immune complex glomerulonephritis. Renal and biological manifestations disappeared with clinical improvement secondary to antibiotherapy. physicians have to consider the possible occurrence of such C-PR-3 ANCA, claimed to be specific markers for Wegener's granulomatosis, in infectious diseases such as SBE. Hence we focus on the necessity of performing a renal biopsy with light microscopy and immunofluorescence studies in all patients with ANCA associated glomerular disease.
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