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1/20. Possible role of an endovascular provocative test in the diagnosis of glossopharyngeal neuralgia as a vascular compression syndrome.

    We utilized endovascular provocative techniques to identify the indications for microvascular decompression surgery in a serious case of glossopharyngeal neuralgia. This is the first reported case in which an endovascular provocative test was applied for diagnosis of glossopharyngeal neuralgia as a vascular compression syndrome. A 68-year-old woman presented with severe paroxysmal facial pain which could not be controlled by medical therapy. Partial effectiveness to carbamazepine led us to wonder whether or not the selection of microvascular decompression surgery would be appropriate. Pre-operative angiography was performed. During the examination a microcatheter was inserted into the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery (pica), and an attack of typical glossopharyngeal neuralgia occurred. The patient thus underwent microvascular decompression surgery. The pica was verified to compress the glossopharyngeal nerve and therefore was moved to induce decompression. The patient has since experienced no further pain for one year postoperatively. The diagnosis of glossopharyngeal neuralgia is sometimes complex and it is difficult to select the most appropriate surgical modality. In such cases this endovascular provocative technique may thus be useful for making a definitive decision or microvascular decompression surgery.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neuralgia
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2/20. Neurovascular compression of the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal nerve: three case reports.

    trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a frequent cause of paroxysmal facial pain and headache in adults. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) is less common, but can cause severe episodic pain in the ear and throat. Neurovascular compression of the appropriate cranial nerve as it leaves the brain stem is responsible for the symptoms in many patients, and neurosurgical decompression of the nerve is now a well accepted treatment in adults with both TN and GPN who fail to respond to drug therapy. Neither TN nor GPN are routinely considered in the differential diagnosis when assessing children with paroxysmal facial or head pain, as they are not reported to occur in childhood. case reports of three children with documented neurovascular compression causing severe neuralgic pain and disability are presented. The fact that these conditions do occur in the paediatric population, albeit rarely, is highlighted, and appropriate investigation and management are discussed.
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ranking = 0.25003620709337
keywords = neuralgia, headache
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3/20. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia and MS.

    Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) is characterized by a severe lancing pain in the posterior pharynx, tonsillar fossa, and base of the tongue. It is induced frequently by swallowing and yawning. GPN has not been described previously in MS patients. The authors report four MS patients with GPN. Three responded to carbamazepine and one resolved during treatment with adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) and cyclophosphamide. Withdrawal of carbamazepine after 1 week in one patient resulted in recurrence of pain. GPN may be associated with MS and responds to carbamazepine.
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ranking = 0.625
keywords = neuralgia
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4/20. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia following foreign body impaction in the neck.

    Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is rare, typically idiopathic and treated with carbamazepine. Surgery to decompress or transect the glossopharyngeal nerve root may be performed if conservative management fails. We present a case following trauma to the neck with foreign body impaction. To our knowledge this is the first case of glossopharyngeal neuralgia due to neck trauma.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = neuralgia
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5/20. Tonsillar pain mimicking glossopharyngeal neuralgia as a complication of vagus nerve stimulation: case report.

    An adolescent girl presented with severe, lancinating tonsillar pain exacerbated by swallowing 6 weeks after initiation of left vagus nerve stimulation for intractable epilepsy. Her symptoms mimicked those seen in glossopharyngeal neuralgia and were relieved by temporary cessation of stimulation. Gradual reinstitution of therapy with alteration in stimulus parameters resulted in improved seizure control as well as cessation of pain symptoms. Direct stimulation of the vagus nerve may result in vagoglossopharyngeal neuralgia, which, in this case, was amenable to stimulus modification.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = neuralgia
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6/20. Chiari Type I malformation presenting as glossopharyngeal neuralgia: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Chiari Type I malformation is an important pathological state in which the brainstem is compressed by the cerebellar tonsil. We present a case of glossopharyngeal neuralgia caused by Chiari Type I malformation. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old male patient was admitted with glossopharyngeal neuralgia. magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed caudal displacement of the left cerebellar tonsil. INTERVENTION: Small occipital craniectomy and C1 laminectomy were performed. The left cerebellar tonsil was resected. CONCLUSION: This glossopharyngeal neuralgia was caused by compression of the lower cranial nerves and brainstem by the displaced left cerebellar tonsil. Decompression and pain relief were obtained with resection of the cerebellar tonsil. The patient was pain-free 30 weeks after the operation.
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ranking = 0.875
keywords = neuralgia
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7/20. Surgical treatment of glossopharyngeal neuralgia as vascular compression syndrome via transcondylar fossa (supracondylar transjugular tubercle) approach.

    OBJECTIVE: These are the first reported cases in whom the transcondylar fossa approach was applied for the treatment of glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) as a vascular compression syndrome. CASES PRESENTATION: All three cases presented with severe paroxysmal pharyngeal pain which could not be controlled by medical treatment. The patients all underwent microvascular decompression surgery (MVD) via transcondylar fossa approach. The posterior inferior cerebellar artery or the anterior inferior cerebellar artery was clearly verified to be compressing the glossopharyngeal nerve and then was safely and completely moved and fixed to the dura mater by the sling retraction technique to effect decompression. No patient has since experienced any further pain or permanent neurological deficit after surgery. TECHNICAL ADVANTAGE: The transcondylar fossa approach is one of the lateral approaches which is different from the transcondylar approach. In this approach, the posterior part of the jugular tubercle is extradurally removed without injuring the atlanto-occipital joint. The entire course of the cisternal portion of the glossopharyngeal nerve can be sufficiently seen with gentle retraction of the cerebellar hemisphere, when using this approach. CONCLUSION: This approach makes the MVD for GPN both effective and safe.
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ranking = 0.625
keywords = neuralgia
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8/20. serotonin mediated cluster headache, trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and superior laryngeal neuralgia with SAD chronicity.

    cluster headache is a rare and severe pain syndrome with elusive pathophysiology. serotonin pathways within the brainstem may be implicated in cluster headache with seasonal affective disorder and a subset of cranial nerve neuralgias. We describe and chronicle a syndrome consisting of cluster headache, seasonal affective disorder, with associated trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, superior laryngeal neuralgias in an 11-year-old female. Pharmacologic interventions for this patient were examined in conjunction with current classification, location and function of serotonin receptors. Etiology is postulated as mixed cranial nerve excitation via endogenous 5-HT (agonist) activity of 5-HT3 receptors within the nucleus tractus solitarius and trigeminal tract nucleus.
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ranking = 1.750636149342
keywords = neuralgia, cluster, headache
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9/20. Cranial root injury in glossopharyngeal neuralgia: electron microscopic observations. Case report.

    Optical and electron microscopic examinations were made of a biopsy sample of the ninth and 10th cranial nerves obtained during posterior fossa surgery for the relief of pain in a patient suffering from glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GN). Pathological findings, which were restricted to a small fraction of fascicles in the nerves, included large patches of demyelinated axons in close membrane-to-membrane apposition to one another and zones of less severe myelin damage (dysmyelination). These observations, in the light of similar morphological changes observed in biopsy samples excised from patients with trigeminal neuralgia, and new information on the pathophysiological characteristics of injured peripheral nerve axons, can account for much of the symptomatology of GN.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = neuralgia
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10/20. Fully endoscopic vascular decompression of the glossopharyngeal nerve.

    Microvascular decompression of the glossopharyngeal nerve is an effective treatment of patients with glossopharyngeal neuralgia in whom compression of the nerve by a blood vessel is implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. The standard surgical technique uses a binocular operating microscope for intra-operative visualization. Growing experience with posterior fossa endoscopy, however, has suggested that endoscopes may provide more comprehensive anatomical views of cerebellopontine angle. This report describes the case of a patient suffering from glossopharyngeal neuralgia who underwent fully endoscopic vascular decompression of the glossopharyngeal nerve. During this procedure the endoscope was used to survey the posterior fossa, guide the placement of insulating sponges, and conduct a final assessment of the intervention. We found the endoscope ideally suited to the constricted operating space of the posterior fossa, allowing for accurate localization and careful separation of the pathological vascular conflict with minimal brain retraction and no damage to surrounding structures. The versatility of endoscopy allows for superior visual appreciation of neurovascular conflicts in the posterior fossa. To date, endoscopy has primarily been used to supplement microscopy in cranial nerve decompression surgery. This report demonstrates how the endoscope can be used as the sole imaging modality in glossopharyngeal nerve decompression, with excellent results.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = neuralgia
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