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1/8. Possible role of an endovascular provocative test in the diagnosis of glossopharyngeal neuralgia as a vascular compression syndrome.

    We utilized endovascular provocative techniques to identify the indications for microvascular decompression surgery in a serious case of glossopharyngeal neuralgia. This is the first reported case in which an endovascular provocative test was applied for diagnosis of glossopharyngeal neuralgia as a vascular compression syndrome. A 68-year-old woman presented with severe paroxysmal facial pain which could not be controlled by medical therapy. Partial effectiveness to carbamazepine led us to wonder whether or not the selection of microvascular decompression surgery would be appropriate. Pre-operative angiography was performed. During the examination a microcatheter was inserted into the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery (pica), and an attack of typical glossopharyngeal neuralgia occurred. The patient thus underwent microvascular decompression surgery. The pica was verified to compress the glossopharyngeal nerve and therefore was moved to induce decompression. The patient has since experienced no further pain for one year postoperatively. The diagnosis of glossopharyngeal neuralgia is sometimes complex and it is difficult to select the most appropriate surgical modality. In such cases this endovascular provocative technique may thus be useful for making a definitive decision or microvascular decompression surgery.
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2/8. Jacobson's nerve schwannoma: a rare middle ear mass.

    The case of a 55-year-old woman with a middle ear mass is presented. The preoperative diagnostic workup, including an audiogram and imaging studies, and the histopathologic findings of the tumor are reviewed. The tumor, a schwannoma, arose from Jacobson's nerve in the middle ear. The surgical anatomy of Jacobson's nerve and the surgical approach to this tumor and to other tumors of the middle ear space are discussed. Tumors of the tympanic cavity are rare, with the exception of cholesteatoma; otherwise, the most common among them are paraganglioma and facial nerve neuroma. This report represents the first documented case of a schannoma arising from Jacobson's nerve in the tympanic cavity.
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3/8. Fully endoscopic vascular decompression of the glossopharyngeal nerve.

    Microvascular decompression of the glossopharyngeal nerve is an effective treatment of patients with glossopharyngeal neuralgia in whom compression of the nerve by a blood vessel is implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. The standard surgical technique uses a binocular operating microscope for intra-operative visualization. Growing experience with posterior fossa endoscopy, however, has suggested that endoscopes may provide more comprehensive anatomical views of cerebellopontine angle. This report describes the case of a patient suffering from glossopharyngeal neuralgia who underwent fully endoscopic vascular decompression of the glossopharyngeal nerve. During this procedure the endoscope was used to survey the posterior fossa, guide the placement of insulating sponges, and conduct a final assessment of the intervention. We found the endoscope ideally suited to the constricted operating space of the posterior fossa, allowing for accurate localization and careful separation of the pathological vascular conflict with minimal brain retraction and no damage to surrounding structures. The versatility of endoscopy allows for superior visual appreciation of neurovascular conflicts in the posterior fossa. To date, endoscopy has primarily been used to supplement microscopy in cranial nerve decompression surgery. This report demonstrates how the endoscope can be used as the sole imaging modality in glossopharyngeal nerve decompression, with excellent results.
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4/8. Chiari type I presenting as left glossopharyngeal neuralgia with cardiac syncope.

    Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is an uncommon craniofacial pain syndrome that is occasionally associated with cardiac syncope. However, we relate Chiari I syndrome as a cause of this clinical picture for the first time in the literature. The authors analyze the relevant literature and discuss the pathogenesis and treatment of associated syndromes. We describe the case of a 45-year-old female patient who presented with a 3-year history of left glossopharyngeal neuralgia with occasional dysphagia and episodes of syncope when eating or swallowing. The pain was not disseminated to the right side and was fairly well controlled by carbamazepine. The syncopal attacks had a duration of about 10 sec. Neurological examination elicited a faint dysphonia associated with paradoxical dysphagia. The cranial magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a bilateral herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum, more evidently on the left side. The patient received a suboccipital craniectomy and resection of the posterior arch of C1. The dura mater was opened, and we found both tonsils displaced into the foramen magnum extending caudally toward the C1 level. Both tonsils were compressing the brainstem and especially the low cranial nerves bilaterally. The lower cranial nerves were compressed between the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (pica) and the herniated cerebellar tonsil on both sides. Both PICAs were dissected by microsurgical technique and all the arachnoid adherences were cut. The left tonsil was resected by means of ultrasonic aspirator. Duraplasty was performed with the occipital pericranium. The paroxysmal pain attacks and the syncopal picture disappeared immediately after the operation. The patient was discharged on the 7th postoperative day. One year later, she was free of symptoms. This case provides clinical evidence of close connections between the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, which control visceral sensation; and compression of the IX and X nerves between the herniated tonsil and pica or vertebral artery may cause an irritative sensory phenomenon, which is the origin of the algic sensation and the cardiac syncope by means of cross talk between the fibers of the same nerve.
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5/8. Transient Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome after surgical resection of a right insulo-opercular low-grade glioma: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We describe an atypical case of transient Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome, or faciopharyngoglossomasticatory diplegia with automatic voluntary dissociation, occurring after surgical resection of a right insulo-opercular glioma. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old right-handed man experienced partial seizures that were poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs during a 2-year period as a result of a right insulo-opercular low-grade glioma, leading to the proposal of surgical resection. In addition, 1 year before the operation, the patient experienced a severe brain injury that resulted in a coma. A computed tomographic scan revealed left opercular contusion. The patient recovered completely within 6 months. INTERVENTION: Intraoperative corticosubcortical electrical functional mapping was performed along the resection, allowing the identification and preservation of the facial and upper limb motor structures. A subtotal removal of the glioma was achieved. The patient had postoperative anarthria, with loss of voluntary muscular functions of the face and tongue, and he had trouble chewing and swallowing. All of these symptoms resolved within 3 months. CONCLUSION: These findings provide insight into the use of surgery to treat a right insulo-opercular tumor. First, surgeons must be particularly cautious in cases with a potential contralateral lesion (e.g., history of head injury), even if such a lesion is not visible on magnetic resonance imaging scans; preoperative metabolic imaging and electrophysiological investigations should be considered before an operative decision is made. Second, surgeons must perform intraoperative functional mapping to identify and to attempt to preserve the corticosubcortical facial motor structures. A procedure performed while the patient is awake should be discussed to detect the structures involved in chewing and swallowing in cases of suspected bilateral lesions. Third, the patient must be informed of this particular risk before surgery is performed.
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6/8. Extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysm presenting as symptomatic hypoglossal and glossopharyngeal nerve paralysis.

    Aneurysms of the extracranial portion of the internal carotid artery are rare, particularly in young patients. They usually develop following trauma, or secondary to infection involving the parapharyngeal space that extends to the vessel wall. This is a case of an internal carotid artery aneurysm presenting acutely following chiropractic neck manipulation with hypoglossal and glossopharyngeal nerve palsy. The imaging findings and subsequent operative management are described.
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7/8. Bilateral glossopharyngeal nerve paralysis after tonsillectomy: case report and anatomic study.

    OBJECTIVE: To present a case report and to propose an anatomic explanation for a rare complication of tonsillectomy, severe dysphagia caused by bilateral paralysis of the glossopharyngeal nerve. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review and prospective cadaveric dissection. methods: The medical record and radiologic data were reviewed from a patient who had severe dysphagia after tonsillectomy. In addition, 10 formalin-preserved cadaver head and neck specimens were dissected to identify the anatomic course of 20 glossopharyngeal nerves. The distance between the nerve and tonsillar fossa was measured at two sites. RESULTS: The patient was diagnosed with bilateral paralysis of the glossopharyngeal nerve and required use of gastrotomy tube for years postoperatively. The mean distance from the posterosuperior tonsillar fossa and the main trunk of the glossopharyngeal nerve was 10.7 mm, and the mean distance from the posteroinferior tonsillar fossa and the closest lingual branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve was 6.5 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Direct nerve injury seems the most plausible explanation for this rare complication of tonsillectomy. The proximity of the glossopharyngeal nerve to the tonsillar fossa emphasizes the importance of maintaining the correct surgical plane during surgery.
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8/8. Traumatic dissection of the internal maxillary artery associated with isolated glossopharyngeal nerve palsy: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Spontaneous or traumatic dissection of the internal carotid artery with resultant lower cranial nerve palsies is well documented. However, dissection of the external carotid artery with lower cranial palsies has not been reported previously. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old man experienced an epidural hematoma as the result of a fall and underwent a craniotomy and hematoma removal. Subsequently, he developed dysgeusia and difficulty in swallowing. brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a dilated linear structure, with isosignal intensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintense signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Strong enhancement was seen on postcontrast T1-weighted images, indicating a dissected internal maxillary artery. This was confirmed on selective angiography of the left common carotid artery. INTERVENTION: Guglielmi detachable coils were introduced into the false lumen of the dissected artery. Subsequently, 0.5 ml of glue mixed with Lipiodol (Lafayette Pharmacal, Lafayette, IN) was packed into the remnant of the false lumen. Repeat angiograms demonstrated complete occlusion of the dissected vessel. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and the neurological deficits gradually improved. CONCLUSION: We describe the first reported case of internal maxillary artery dissection and pseudoaneurysm presenting with isolated glossopharyngeal nerve palsy. The association between cranial nerve palsy and dissection of the external carotid artery branch may be the result of a compressive mechanism, as suggested by its anatomic relationships, the characteristics of the dissection, and the good prognosis. Endovascular embolization of the external carotid artery dissection and pseudoaneurysm is suggested as an effective therapeutic method for improving or alleviating neurological deficits produced by mass effect.
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