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1/11. Perioperative management of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. A review of the literature.

    Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) deficiency is the most frequent cause of hemolytic anemias due to enzyme abnormality. Perioperative management must be careful to avoid the onset of hemolytic crisis. We present a complete review of the literature on this illness and describe the perioperative management of an adult with known G6PD deficiency and the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of the disorder and its possible anesthetic implications are discussed. A 49-year-old patient had undergone varum osteotomy in her left knee due to genu valgum. She had been diagnosed as having G6PDH deficiency sixteen years earlier provoked by ingesting beans. The perioperative circumstances capable of causing autohemolysis are described and discussed. In spite of the fact that the pattern is self-limited, it provokes the onset of jaundice and anemia which can complicate the recovery. Simple elimination of those elements which precipitate with oxyhemoglobin will allow an uneventful anesthetic procedure.
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2/11. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency--report of 4 cases.

    glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common hereditary enzyme disorder and more than 200 million people have a deficiency in this enzyme. It is a globally important cause of neonatal jaundice and causes life-threatening hemolytic crisis in childhood. At later ages, certain drugs such as antimalarials, and fava beans cause hemolysis among G6PD deficiency patients. The frequency and severity is influenced by genetic and cultural factors. It is common in Mediterranean, African, and some East Asian populations but rare in korea. Four cases of G6PD deficiency which were first noticed in korea are investigated with their clinical features.
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3/11. Hemolytic crisis in a non-ketotic and euglycemic child with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzymopathy and hemolytic anemia can be triggered by many drugs, by the ingestion of fava beans, and by metabolic imbalances. Nonetheless, only sporadic reports of hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) have been reported to date. We describe an 8 year-old Sicilian boy who suffered from hemolytic anemia some days after admission for DM1. On admission, acid-base equilibrium was normal but 4 days later he presented hemolytic anemia with G6PD deficiency, confirmed by personal and family history and laboratory evaluation. We suggest that the hemolytic crisis in this patient was triggered by the relative hypoglycemia that followed insulin administration. The interference of acidosis, infections, drugs, food or other triggering agents was excluded. This report demonstrates that hemolysis may represent a possible complication of DM treatment in patients with G6PD deficiency and we recommend careful clinical surveillance in these patients.
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4/11. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants: Gd ( ) Alexandra associated with neonatal jaundice and Gd (-) Camperdown in a young man with lamellar cataracts.

    Two male subjects are described, with unusual clinical presentations and with hitherto undescribed G6PD variants. The first, of Italian extraction, suffered from severe neonatal jaundice following maternal ingestion of fresh broad beans (vicia fava) both prenatally and postnatally: the expression of the enzymatic defect was much more severe in the neonatal period than on retesting in adolescence, when biochemical characterization showed unique features which justify designation as a new variant Gd( ) Alexandra. The second patient, a boy of Maltese extraction who was found to have bilateral lamellar cataracts at the age of 4 years, was identified as G6PD deficient only as a result of a survey of children of Mediterranean origin with unexplained cataract formation; he has approximately 15% of normal enzyme activity, with another unique combination of biochemical characteristics which has led to its designation as Gd(-) Camperdown. Although this association may be coincidental, it prompts further attention to the possibility that under certain circumstances G6PD deficiency may favor cataract formation. The two cases illustrate the value of characterization of the mutant enzyme whenever unexpected clinical or laboratory results are obtained.
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5/11. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in southern italy: a case of G6PD A(-) associated with favism.

    During a routine screening for G6PD deficiency in the Province of Matera (Southern italy), an eleven-year-old boy was brought to our attention who had fever obviously caused by a viral infection, but who also had hepatosplenomegaly and haemoglobinuria. The boy had previously experienced two severe haemolytic attacks. At the age of six months severe haemolysis occurred after the ingestion of cooked fava beans. At the age of seven years, the haemolytic episode was very likely triggered by oral administration of co-trimoxazole. The G6PD activity level in erythrocyte lysate was clearly defective (25% of normal). The electrophoretic mobility of G6PD was 110% of normal. These data together with those obtained from biochemical and molecular characterisation allowed the variant to be identified as G6PD A(-). This is the first report of an association between the African type G6PD deficiency variant and favism.
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6/11. Chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA) and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in a patient with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). Molecular study of a new variant (G6PD Clinic) with markedly acidic pH optimum.

    A new glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variant with severe erythrocytic G6PD deficiency and a unique pH optimum is described in a young patient with chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA) and familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). Chronic hemolysis was present in the absence of infections, oxidant drugs or ingestion of faba beans. Residual enzyme activity was about 2.6% and 63% of normal activity in erythrocytes and leucocytes, respectively. A molecular study using standard methods showed G6PD in the patient to have normal electrophoretic mobility (at pH 7.0, 8.0 and 8.8), normal apparent affinity for substrates (Km, G6P and nadp) and a slightly abnormal utilization of substrate analogues (decreased deamino-nadp and increased 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate utilization). Heat stability was found to be markedly decreased (8% of residual activity after 20 min of incubation at 46 degrees C) and a particular characteristic of this enzyme was a biphasic pH curve with a greatly increased activity at low pH. Although molecular characteristics of this variant closely resemble those of G6PD Bangkok and G6PD Duarte, it can be distinguished from these and all other previously reported variants by virtue of its unusual pH curve. Therefore the present variant has been designated G6PD Clinic to distinguish it from other G6PD variants previously described.
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7/11. Two new glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants associated with hemolytic anemia: G6PD Amman-1 and G6PD Amman-2.

    Two glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants were investigated. G6PD Amman-1 was partially purified from the red cells of a patient suffering from recurrent jaundice and spontaneous episodic attacks of severe hemolysis in the absence of oxidant drugs, infection, or fava beans. The enzymatic characteristics of G6PD Amman-1 were markedly reduced activity, fast eletrophoretic mobility, slightly increased km for nadp, normal km for G-6-P, normal heat stability, normal utilization of substrate analogues 2-deoxy G-6-P and deamino-nadp, and a monophasic pH curve with a peak at 8.5 to 9.3. The second variant, G6PD Amman-2, was partially purified from the red cells of a patient suffering from recurrent jaundice with episodic mild hemolysis caused by infection or unknown factors. G6PD Amman-2 characteristics were severely reduced activity, slow electrophoretic mobility, normal km for nadp, decreased km for G-6-P, decreased heat stability, increased utilization of substrate analogues, and a monophasic pH curve with a narrow peak at pH 9.5. The red cell level of reduced glutathione was markedly decreased with twofold increase in the activity of glutathione reductase in the patient with G6PD Amman-2.
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8/11. Vitreoretinal hemorrhages after ingestion of fava beans in a G-6-PD-deficient subject.

    A case of vitreo retinal hemorrhages following a hemolytic crisis by fava beans in a G-6-DP-deficient patient is reported. Intravascular coagulation due to thromboplastin-like substances liberated by the diseased RBC could be the cause. The possibility of vitreoretinal hemorrhages of this nature in young subjects from the areas where G-6-PD deficiency is endemic is stressed.
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9/11. Gd(-) Muret and gd(-) Colomiers, two new variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase associated with favism.

    Two males subjects are described with hitherto undescribed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants. The first is of French ancestry, the second of Sicilian extraction. Each subject suffered from acute hemolytic anemia following ingestion of broad beans (vicia fava). In both cases the hemolytic crisis occurred in a late period of life (29 and 58 years). No previous hemolytic crisis was recorded. The electrophoretic and kinetic properties of the mutant enzymes examined after purification from the red cells allowed each to be distinguished from other G6PD variants reported until now. The first variant was named Gd(-) Muret, the other Gd(-) Colomiers.
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10/11. favism in a female newborn infant whose mother ingested fava beans before delivery.

    We describe a case of favism in a female newborn infant with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency whose mother had ingested fava beans 5 days before delivery. At birth there were clinical and hematologic signs of hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinuria, and no blood group immunization. Study of the G6PD activity and 2-deoxy-glucose-6-phosphate utilization rate revealed that the infant and the mother were heterozygous for G6PD deficiency.
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