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1/37. A large Alu-mediated deletion, identified by PCR, as the molecular basis for glycogen storage disease type ii (GSDII).

    glycogen storage disease type ii (GSDII) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from inherited deficiency of the enzyme lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase. Over 40 different mutations have been described but no large deletions have been previously identified. We now describe a homozygous large (9-kb) deletion extending from IVS 15 to 4 kb downstream of the terminal exon (exon 20), detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. The deletion was initially suspected because of failure to amplify a contiguous group of exons by PCR. We hypothesized an Alu/Alu recombination, based on our prior demonstration by Southern blotting of alu elements in the regions potentially flanking the deletion. Additional sequence analysis of genomic fragments confirmed the presence of alu elements and allowed the design of flanking primers for PCR amplification. Amplification resulted in a smaller than normal fragment (0.7 vs. 10 kb) in homozygosity in the proband and in heterozygosity in her parents. Cloning and sequencing of the smaller than normal 0.7-kb deletion fragment revealed an Alu/Alu deletion junction. In heterozygosity this deletion would not be detected by currently standard PCR mutation detection methods. Based on other Alu-mediated deletions, this deletion is likely to be recurrent and should be screened for in all non-consanguineous GSDII patients, particularly when only one mutation has been identified and none of the 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the deleted region are heterozygous. These observations also suggest that initial characterization of genes at disease-causing loci should include a search for Alu and other repetitive elements to facilitate subsequent PCR-based mutation analysis.
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2/37. Late infantile acid maltase deficiency: a case report.

    A five-year-old boy with late-infantile (juvenile) form of acid maltase deficiency is presented. His symptoms were restricted to skeletal muscle. There is commonly a correlation between the amount of residual acid maltase activity and the severity of the clinical picture. Although the residual enzyme level was very low in our patient, no progression of his neurological findings have been observed during the follow-up period of two years.
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3/37. Aberrant splicing at catalytic site as cause of infantile onset glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII): molecular identification of a novel IVS9 ( 2GT-->GC) in combination with rare IVS10 ( 1GT-->CT).

    glycogen storage disease type ii (GSDII) results from deleterious mutations in acid alpha-glucosidase gene. To date several mutant alleles have been studied including missense and nonsense mutations, insertions, small and large deletions as well as splice site mutations. Apart from IVS1 (- 13-->G), 525delT, and Delta18, the other mutations are rare and often unique to single patients. Moreover, the molecular findings also observed in the different ethnic groups makes it difficult to attempt to correlate genotype and phenotype to explain the origin of clinical variability. Even though there are no conclusive genotype phenotype correlations, the in frame splice site mutations identified up until now have been found associated with the juvenile/adult onset of GSDII. In this study we describe a novel in frame splicing defect, IVS9 ( 2GT-->GC), identified in combination with the rare IVS10 ( 1GT-->CT) mutation in a patient with classic infantile GSDII disease. Because both mutations occur at the catalytic site region, it is likely that the alteration of both catalytic function and steric conformation of the enzyme may be responsible for the most severe form of the disease.
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4/37. Intractable fever and cortical neuronal glycogen storage in glycogenosis type 2.

    Glycogenosis type 2 is an autosomal recessive glycogen storage disorder caused by deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase. Different phenotypes are recognized. The authors describe two children affected by the late infantile form; both presented terminal hyperthermia not caused by infections. autopsy performed in one case showed diffuse glycogen storage in the CNS neurons. In light of current interest in enzyme replacement therapy, this finding casts some doubt on how effective enzyme replacement therapy will be unless it can be targeted directly into the CNS.
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ranking = 34818.232856815
keywords = enzyme replacement therapy, enzyme replacement, replacement therapy, enzyme, replacement
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5/37. A sensitive semi-automated kinetic assay of alpha-D-glucosidase for the prenatal diagnosis of type 2 glycogenosis (Pompe's disease).

    prenatal diagnosis of type 2 glycogenosis (Pompe's disease) has been done on cultured amniotic fluid cells, using a semi-automated fluorimetric kinetic assay for alpha-D-glucosidase with 4-methylumbelliferyl-alpha-D-glucoside as substrate. The activity of the enzyme was related to that of beta-D-galactosidase, and found to be absent in cells from an affected fetus. The diagnosis was confirmed in fetal liver, where the same assay was used to show absence of alpha-D-glucosidase activity with normal beta-D-galactosidase activity, and where increased glycogen deposition was demonstrated histologically. This type of assay is generally applicable to lysosomal enzymes, and to other fluorigenic enzyme reactions.
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6/37. biopsy-proven alpha-glucosidase deficiency with normal lymphocyte enzyme activity.

    Alpha-glucosidase deficiency is a rare cause of muscle disease in adults. The diagnosis relies on recognition of the salient clinical features and determination of significantly reduced alpha-glucosidase (GAA) activity. lymphocytes are the usual tissue for diagnostic enzymology; discrepant results from analyses of different tissues are unusual. We report a patient with clinical, electromyographic, and biopsy findings indicative of alpha-glucosidase deficiency whose muscle and lymphocyte enzyme results were markedly discrepant on multiple analyses. As a result, we conclude that all patients with suspected alpha-glucosidase deficiency and a normal lymphocyte GAA assay should also have a determination of GAA activity in muscle or skin fibroblasts.
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7/37. nephrotic syndrome complicating alpha-glucosidase replacement therapy for Pompe disease.

    We report a patient with Pompe disease who developed reversible nephrotic syndrome during prolonged, high-dose, experimental, enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase (rhGAA). Because of the development of antibodies to rhGAA and concomitant clinical decline, escalating doses of rhGAA were administered as part of an experimental immune tolerance regimen. Histologic evaluation of kidney tissue revealed glomerular deposition of immune complexes containing rhGAA itself, in a pattern of membranous nephropathy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of nephrotic syndrome occurring during enzyme replacement therapy. The nephrotic syndrome gradually resolved after the rhGAA dose was decreased, indicating that decreasing the antigenic load can ameliorate glomerular immune complex deposition associated with enzyme replacement in a highly sensitized patient.
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ranking = 38710.708328209
keywords = enzyme replacement therapy, enzyme replacement, replacement therapy, enzyme, replacement
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8/37. Identification of a missense mutation in an adult-onset patient with glycogenosis type II expressing only one allele.

    The lysosomal enzyme acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) or acid maltase is deficient in glycogen storage disease type ii. We sought to determine the molecular basis for the disease in an adult-onset patient, unusual for very low enzyme activity similar to that seen with the infantile-onset form and with a previously reported defect in phosphorylation. We constructed cDNA and genomic dna libraries from the patient's cell line (GM 1935) and determined the nucleotide sequence of the coding region. There were three base-pair substitutions in one allele (C1935 to A; G2446 to A and C2780 to T), all predicting amino acid changes (Asp-645 to Glu; Val-816 to Ile and Thr-927 to Ile). To determine which of the three base-pair substitutions resulted in loss of enzyme activity, we next utilized primer-directed mutagenesis and transient gene expression in an SV40-immortalized GAA-deficient fibroblast cell line. Only the construct containing the G2446 to A mutation (Val-816 to Ile) lost GAA enzyme activity, while the other two substitutions (including the Thr-927 to Ile change that predicts a loss of a potential site for N-linked glycosylation and mannose phosphorylation) each resulted in enzyme activity equal to the control. Analysis of RFLPs in genomic dna, as well as sequence analysis for the three base-pair alterations, indicated that the patient was a genetic compound. We next digested PCR-amplified cDNA (reverse-transcribed from rna) with Aat II to detect the base-pair 1935 substitution and found that virtually all of the mRNA was derived from the allele with the three base-pair substitutions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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9/37. Sudden deterioration in nonclassical infantile-onset Pompe disease responding to alglucosidase alfa infusion therapy: a case report.

    A patient with atypical infantile Pompe disease suffered acute respiratory insufficiency at the age of 8 years which resulted in complete immobilization and dependence on assisted ventilation. Shortly after initiation of enzyme replacement therapy, she regained her mobility and, after 20 months of treatment, she now leads an almost normal life with limited restrictions.
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ranking = 17409.116428407
keywords = enzyme replacement therapy, enzyme replacement, replacement therapy, enzyme, replacement
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10/37. Infantile Pompe's disease, lipid storage, and partial carnitine deficiency.

    A diagnosis of infantile Pompe's disease (glycogenosis type II) was made by muscle biopsy on a 6-month-old infant boy seen with hypotonia, weakness, and developmental regression. Histochemistry and electron microscopy revealed a vacuolar myopathy with massive glycoge accumulation associated with increased neutral lipid as demonstrated on Oil Red O reactions. Pleomorphic, hypertrophic mitochondria with distortion of cristae and electron-dense deposits within the matrix were identified. Acid alpha-1,4-glucosidase activity was absent but associated with increased neutral maltase activity and a variable compensatory rise in activity of other lysosomal enzymes. Biochemical studies demonstrated low free carnitine, normal acylcarnitine, increased activity of carnitine palmityl and acyl transferases, and other enzymes of beta-oxidation with the notable exception of low normal beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. The explanation for the lipid accumulation is uncertain but is likely related to the combination of low carnitine concentration in muscle, low beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, representing a rate limiting enzyme of beta-oxidation, and nonspecific defective mitochondrial function.
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