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21/42. glycogen storage disease type iv diagnosed biochemically. A case report.

    A case report of a child with glycogen storage disease type iv is presented. The diagnosis was confirmed by enzyme assay on cultured fibroblasts. Some unusual features of this disorder are discussed and the possibility of antenatal diagnosis is emphasized. ( info)

22/42. nervous system involvement in type IV glycogenosis.

    A 30-month-old girl exhibited the 19th known case of type IV glycogenosis. Extensive involvement of the nervous system was found at autopsy. This represents only the second patient in whom the fine structure of the CNS and skeletal muscle has been described. We have also identified the abnormal polysaccharide in peripheral nerve, a finding that, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. Our review of the literature indicates that approximately 50% of these patients exhibit signs or symptoms referable to the neuromuscular system. Most clinical and pathologic studies have focused on the severe liver involvement; insufficient attention has been directed toward the nervous system. This emphasizes the need for more detailed neurologic and neuropathologic examinations of children with type IV glycogenosis. ( info)

23/42. Juvenile polysaccharidosis with cardioskeletal myopathy.

    Polysaccharidoses with ultrastructural features reminiscent of glycogenosis type IV, but without enzymatic correlation, have been observed in several adolescent and adult patients. Little is known of the clinical, pathologic, or biochemical nature of these disorders. We describe a patient with ultrastructural characteristics consistent with glycogenosis type IV, but with normal brancher enzyme activity in dermal fibroblasts and cardiac muscle. During life and at autopsy, electron microscopy revealed amylopectin-like polysaccharide deposits present in a wide variety of tissues. The polysaccharidosis of our patient and similar patients may be a variant of glycogenosis type IV with a yet to be defined enzymatic defect. ( info)

24/42. A new variant of type IV glycogenosis: deficiency of branching enzyme activity without apparent progressive liver disease.

    Type IV glycogenosis is due to branching enzyme deficiency and is usually manifested clinically by progressive liver disease with cirrhosis and hepatic failure between the second and fourth years of life. We describe a 5-year-old boy who, following an acute febrile illness at 2 years of age, was first noted to have hepatomegaly with mildly elevated serum transaminase levels. liver biopsy revealed hepatic fibrosis with periodic-acid Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant inclusions in hepatocytes and fibrillar inclusions characteristic of amylopectin by electron microscopy. Enzymatic assay revealed deficient hepatic branching enzyme activity with normal activity of glucose-6-phosphatase, debranching enzyme and phosphorylase activities. During the succeeding 3 years, he grew and developed normally with apparent resolution of any clinical evidence of liver disease and only intermittent elevation in serum transaminase levels associated with fever and prolonged fasting. Repeat liver biopsy at 4 years of age showed persistence of scattered hepatocellular periodic-acid Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant inclusions, but no progression of hepatic fibrosis in spite of persistent deficiency of hepatic branching enzyme activity. Skeletal muscle and skin fibroblasts from the patient also showed deficient enzyme activity. skin fibroblasts from both parents exhibited half the normal control activity, suggesting a heterozygote state. This is the first documented patient with deficiency of branching enzyme but without evidence of progressive hepatic disease. This patient, coupled with reports of other patients with late onset hepatic or muscle disease with branching enzyme deficiency, suggests that the defect resulting in Type IV glycogen storage disease is more heterogenous and possibly more common than previously suspected. ( info)

25/42. A juvenile variant of glycogenosis IV (Andersen disease).

    An unusual patient with Andersen disease (glycogenosis type IV) is presented, with only relatively mild clinical symptoms at the age of 8 years. The patient has a profound deficiency of glycogen-branching enzyme. ( info)

26/42. Severe cardiopathy in branching enzyme deficiency.

    A 7 1/2-year-old girl had exercise intolerance and exertional dyspnea. Four months later, congestive heart failure developed, with recurrent chylous pleural effusions, and she died at age 8 1/2 years. Endomyocardial biopsy tissue showed abundant PAS-positive, diastase-resistant cytoplasmic deposits. Similar inclusions were seen in muscle, skin, and liver specimens. Postmortem studies showed that the abnormal polysaccharide was especially abundant in heart and muscle, but was also present in all other tissues, including the central nervous system. Glycogen isolated from heart, muscle, and spinal cord showed a shift of the iodine spectrum toward higher than normal wavelengths. Branching enzyme activity was lacking in the muscle biopsy specimen and in all postmortem tissues; glycogenolytic enzymes had normal activities. These studies show that cardiomyopathy can be the first symptom of generalized branching enzyme deficiency and that the degree of accumulation of the abnormal polysaccharide may vary in different tissues. ( info)

27/42. Dicarboxylicaciduria and secondary carnitine deficiency in glycogenosis type IV.

    A 3 year old boy developed an unusually mild form of glycogen storage disease type iv. Metabolic investigations showed severe abnormalities of fatty acid and carnitine metabolism. A muscle carnitine deficiency was found. Treatment with L-carnitine orally led to a notable improvement in muscle strength. ( info)

28/42. An adult case of Andersen's disease--Type IV glycogenosis. A clinical, histochemical, ultrastructural and biochemical study.

    A middle-aged man presented with a thirty-year history of progressive, asymmetrical limb-girdle weakness. The muscle biopsy revealed a vacuolar myopathy. The vacuoles which did not disrupt the fibre outline, lay in a subsarcolemmal position. They were PAS-positive and the material was partially resistant to diastase digestion. Electron microscopy showed the vacuoles to contain free unbound glycogen with filamentous material. Leucocyte brancher enzyme activity was normal but the muscle activity was less than half the control value. Histochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of the storage material resemble the amylopectin polysaccharide deposits seen in childhood Type IV glycogenosis. ( info)

29/42. Type III glycogenosis with deposition of urate and amyloid.

    A case of a 44-year-old man with hepatic form of glycogenosis was presented. The patient had abdominal distension and muscular weakness. The glucose tolerance test showed a diabetic pattern, though he had hypoglycemia in fasting state. The fructose tolerance test showed an ability of conversion from fructose to glucose. The double glucagon test showed no rise of blood glucose in fasting state but a rise 2 hours after meal. These symptoms and laboratory data supported the clinical diagnosis of type III glycogenosis. At autopsy, glycogen was markedly deposited in the liver, and slightly in the kidneys and heart. The glycogen pooled in the hepatic cells histochemically showed a normal reaction to several glycogen stainings. Electron microscopy by using Thiery's method revealed that the pooled glycogen particles were clearly arranged as rosettes measuring 1,000A in largest diameter composed of clustered monoparticulates. There were marked hyalinization of the islets of langerhans containing amyloid. As to its pathogenesis, this change can be interpreted as a morphological expression of the hypofunction of beta-cells ascribed to long-standing hypoglycemia. ( info)

30/42. Juvenile hereditary polyglucosan body disease with complete branching enzyme deficiency (type IV glycogenosis).

    Polyglucosan body diseases in adults, contrary to infantile cases (Andersen's disease or type IV glycogenosis or amylopectinosis), are usually not associated with a significant deficiency of the branching enzyme (= amylo-1,4-1,6 transglucosidase). We, therefore, report on a 19-year-old male with complete branching enzyme deficiency presenting with severe myopathy, dilative cardiomyopathy, heart failure, dysmorphic features, and subclinical neuropathy. His 14-year-old brother had similar symptoms and was erroneously classified by a previous muscle biopsy as having central core disease but could later be identified as also having polyglucosan body myopathy. The skeletal muscle, endomyocardiac, and sural nerve biopsies as well as the autopsy revealed extraordinarily severe deposits of polyglucosan bodies not only in striated and smooth muscle fibers, but also in histiocytes, fibroblasts, perineurial cells, axons and astrocytes. Occasional paracrystalline mitochondrial inclusions were also noted. Thus, this patient represents to our knowledge the first juvenile, familial case of polyglucosan body disease with total branching enzyme deficiency and extensive polyglucosan body storage. ( info)
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