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31/42. Glycogenosis type IV: liver transplant at 12 years.

    hepatomegaly, the presenting feature of type IV glycogen storage disease at 20 months of age, regressed during childhood. The patient remained asymptomatic until 12 years of age when, after an episode of shock, septicaemia, and spontaneous peritonitis, liver transplantation was successfully performed. ( info)

32/42. Neonatal hypotonia and cardiomyopathy secondary to type IV glycogenosis.

    A neonate with deficiency of branching enzyme (glycogenosis type IV) presented symptoms of severe hypotonia pre- and postnatally, and dilated cardiomyopathy in early infancy. The classical clinical manifestation of liver cirrhosis was not present, although amylopectin-like inclusions were found in the hepatocytes. In contrast to a previous report, the neurons in the brain stem and spinal anterior horns contained PAS-positive, diastase-resistant deposits. The combined involvement of the muscles and motor neurones could account for the severity of hypotonia. The muscle biopsy, electromyogram and biochemical and enzyme assays were helpful in establishing the diagnosis. ( info)

33/42. Concomitant branching enzyme and phosphorylase deficiencies. An unusual glycogenosis with extensive neuronal polyglucosan storage.

    A baby girl was born hypotonic and was respirator-dependent until death at 43 days of age. A muscle biopsy revealed PAS-positive, diastase-resistant sarcoplasmic inclusions with a vaguely fibrillar structure by electron microscopy. Biochemical studies at autopsy disclosed complete absence of branching enzyme in skeletal muscle and heart, and a deficiency of phosphorylase activity in skeletal muscle with a modest reduction in myocardium. Storage material was present in glia and perikarya of neurons, increasing in amount in the rostrocaudal direction, involving most severely the motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia and myenteric plexi. Inclusions were also present in most organs, especially liver and skeletal muscle. Ultrastructurally, the inclusions ranged from granular aggregates of membrane-bound material concentrated in the region of golgi apparatus to large filamentous bodies similar to polyglucosan bodies. This baby differs from other patients with infantile glycogenosis IV by the severity and onset of symptoms at birth, involvement of neuronal perikarya and widespread extraneural deposits. The combined deficiencies of branching enzyme and phosphorylase may have accounted for the unique clinical and neuropathological findings. ( info)

34/42. A congenital variant of glycogenosis type IV.

    Three related patients are described with glycogenosis type IV with an unusual clinical presentation resulting in perinatal death. Stored material showed birefringent Maltese crosses and was present in skeletal muscles, heart, central nervous system, and liver. Muscular dysfunction resulted in a fetal hypokinesia sequence with arthrogryposis and lung hypoplasia. A subdivision of glycogenosis type IV in four subtypes is proposed, based on age of onset. Measurement of the enzyme activities in different tissues does not permit, at the moment, a distinction between the subtypes. ( info)

35/42. Hepatocellular adenoma in glycogen storage disease type iv.

    The development of hepatocellular adenoma has been recognized in association with glycogen storage disease type I and, less often, with glycogen storage disease type iii, but, to our knowledge, it has not been reported in glycogen storage disease type iv. We had the opportunity to study an 11-month-old male infant who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation for cirrhosis that developed in the setting of glycogen storage disease type iv. A clinically unsuspected hepatocellular adenoma was present in the explanted liver. glycogen storage disease type iv should be considered as a potential precursor to the development of hepatocellular adenoma. Recognition of this association is important, both in terms of the differential diagnosis of tumors that occur in this setting and also to anticipate potential complications of this benign neoplasm. ( info)

36/42. Hepatic and neuromuscular forms of glycogen storage disease type iv caused by mutations in the same glycogen-branching enzyme gene.

    glycogen storage disease type iv (GSD-IV) is an autosomal recessive disease resulting from deficient glycogen-branching enzyme (GBE) activity. The classic and most common form is progressive liver cirrhosis and failure leading to either liver transplantation or death by 5 yr of age. However, the liver disease is not always progressive. In addition, a neuromuscular type of the disease has been reported. The molecular basis of GSD-IV is not known, nor is there a known reason for the clinical variability. We studied the GBE gene in patients with various presentations of GSD-IV. Three point mutations in the GBE gene were found in two patients with the classical presentation: R515C, F257L, and R524X. Transient expression experiments showed that these mutations inactivated GBE activity. Two point mutations, L224P and Y329S, were detected in two separate alleles of a patient with the nonprogressive hepatic form. The L224P resulted in complete loss of GBE activity, whereas the Y329S resulted in loss of approximately 50% of GBE activity. The Y329S allele was also detected in another patient with the nonprogressive form of GSD-IV but not in 35 unrelated controls or in patients with the more severe forms of GSD-IV. A 210-bp deletion from nucleotide 873 to 1082 of the GBE cDNA was detected in a patient with the fatal neonatal neuromuscular presentation. This deletion, representing the loss of one full exon, was caused by a 3' acceptor splicing site mutation (ag to aa). The deletion abolished GBE activity. Our studies indicate that the three different forms of GSD-IV were caused by mutations in the same GBE gene. The data also suggest that the significant retention of GBE activity in the Y329S allele may be a reason for the mild disease. Further study of genotype/phenotype correlations may yield useful information in predicting the clinical outcomes. ( info)

37/42. A mild adult myopathic variant of type IV glycogenosis.

    Type IV glycogenosis is usually a rapidly progressive disease of early childhood, causing death before 4 years of age. It is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, cirrhosis, and chronic hepatic failure. Muscle involvement is generally overshadowed by liver disease. A mild non-infantile variant of type IV glycogenosis has been described in a few patients. In some of them, the patients suffered foremost from chronic progressive myopathy. We here report on a female patient aged 51 years who had experienced difficulties in climbing stairs for 2 years due to leg weakness. EMG revealed a myopathic pattern. The muscle biopsy findings revealed polyglycosan bodies. Biochemical investigation showed absence of branching enzyme in muscle but not in leukocytes and fibroblasts. ( info)

38/42. Clinical and laboratory findings in four patients with the non-progressive hepatic form of type IV glycogen storage disease.

    The classic clinical presentation for type IV glycogen storage disease (branching enzyme deficiency, GSD IV) is hepatosplenomegaly with failure to thrive occurring in the first 18 months of life, followed by progressive liver failure and death by age 5 years. Although there have been two patients without apparent liver progression previously reported, no long-term follow-up clinical data have been available. We present here the clinical spectrum of the non-progressive liver form of GSD IV in four patients, and long-term follow-up of the oldest identified patients (ages 13 and 20 years). None has developed progressive liver cirrhosis, skeletal muscle, cardiac or neurological involvement, and none has been transplanted. Branching enzyme activity was also measured in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with the classic liver progressive, the early neonatal fatal, and the non-progressive hepatic presentations of GSD IV. The residual branching enzyme activity in the patients without progression was not distinguishable from the other forms and could not be used to predict the clinical course. Our data indicate that GSD IV does not always necessitate hepatic transplantation and that caution should be used when counselling patients regarding the prognosis of GSD IV. patients should be carefully monitored for evidence of progression before recommending liver transplantation. ( info)

39/42. A new variant of type IV glycogenosis with primary cardiac manifestation and complete branching enzyme deficiency. In vivo detection by heart muscle biopsy.

    Type IV glycogenosis (polyglucosan body disease) is a rare congenital autosomal recessive inherited disorder, caused by lack of the branching enzyme (amylo-1,4-1,6 transglucosidase). This deficiency leads to storage of abnormal glycogen (polyglucosan bodies) in the liver and other tissues. The clinical onset of the disease is insidious with non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms followed by progressive hepatic failure. Usually patients die due to hepatic cirrhosis within 4 years. Sometimes myopathy of the heart and skeletal muscle is also present. In these cases, the clinical onset is often later than in typical cases. We report on two brothers with primarily cardiac manifestation and late onset of the disease. The older one started to suffer from progressive dilated cardiomyopathy at the age of 18 years, presenting with severe heart failure, hepatosplenomegaly, ascites and peripheral oedema. He also demonstrated myopathy and muscular atrophy especially of the shoulder and lower limbs. Initially he improved on medical therapy, but one year later severe heart failure recurred followed shortly afterwards by sudden cardiac death. Right heart and skeletal muscle biopsies were performed while he was alive. These, as well as the autopsy, revealed massive accumulation of polyglucosan bodies. In both heart and skeletal muscle, complete branching enzyme deficiency could be proven. His 14-year-old brother showed similar clinical findings of mild dilated cardiomyopathy. His muscle biopsy also revealed polyglucosan body myopathy. Thus, in young patients presenting with congestive cardiomyopathy, type IV glycogenosis has to be considered in the differential diagnosis. ( info)

40/42. Childhood-onset spinocerebellar syndrome associated with massive polyglucosan body deposition.

    INTRODUCTION: Polyglucosan body disease (PBD) is a progressive neurological disorder beginning in adult life and associated pathologically with widespread accumulation of polyglucosan bodies (PB) in neuronal and astrocytic processes. We report the unique clinicopathological findings in an early onset spinocerebellar syndrome associated with massive PB deposition. PATIENT & methods: A 14-month-old male developed a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterized by distally predominant weakness and sensory loss, urinary bladder incontinence, and cerebellar signs. He died at age 62 years from pneumonia. We report the clinical and autopsy findings. RESULTS: The autopsy findings were remarkable for diffuse cortical and cerebellar atrophy, diffuse neuronal loss and gliosis, and massive accumulations of PB within neuronal and astrocytic processes. CONCLUSION: PBD may begin in childhood. ( info)
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