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1/99. A nonsense mutation in the myophosphorylase gene in a Japanese family with McArdle's disease.

    We identified a new mutation in the myophosphorylase gene in a Japanese family with McArdle's disease. This point mutation results in the replacement of a tryptophan at amino acid position 361 with a stop codon, the third nonsense mutation in this disorder. Our findings further expand the already wide spectrum of genetic lesions associated with McArdle's disease, and establish that molecular genetic heterogeneity is also present in the Japanese population. ( info)

2/99. Muscle phosphofructokinase deficiency (Tarui's disease): report of a case.

    A 14-year-old girl had an acute episode of rhabdomyolysis after vigorous exercise and seizures. Laboratory studies revealed elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity and myoglobinuria without acute renal failure, as well as mild indirect hyperbilirubinemia, and hyperuricemia. The elevated CPK activity, mild indirect hyperbilirubinemia, and hyperuricemia persisted during a 10-month follow-up period, during which chronic hemolysis without overt anemia was also noted. A muscle biopsy specimen from the left biceps muscle revealed occasional muscle fiber necrosis and mild excess of glycogen accumulation on periodic acid-Schiff staining. Histochemical reactions were negative with phosphofructokinase (PFK) stain when fructose-6-phosphate was used as the substrate, but positive when fructose 1,6-bisphosphate was used as the substrate. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of muscle PFK deficiency (Tarui's disease), which is a defect of glycolysis in muscles and erythrocytes. Less than 40 such patients have been reported to date. When a specific metabolic myopathy is suspected in children with rhabdomyolysis, symptoms of hemolysis should also be sought to identify Tarui's disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of Tarui's disease identified in taiwan. ( info)

3/99. A new mutation in the myophosphorylase gene (Asn684Tyr) in a Spanish patient with McArdle's disease.

    We have identified a novel missense mutation, an A-T transition at codon 684 in exon 17, changing an encoded asparagine to a tyrosine (Asn684Tyr) in a Spanish patient with typical McArdle's disease. The patient was a compound heterozygote, with a previously-described mutation (Gly204Ser) on the other allele. This report expands the molecular genetic heterogeneity in McArdle's disease, emphasizes the presence of private mutations in specific ethnic groups, and indicates that geographic origin must be considered before undertaking dna analysis for diagnosis. ( info)

4/99. McArdle's disease associated with homozygosity for the missense mutation Gly204Ser of the myophosphorylase gene in a Spanish patient.

    We studied a pateint whose clinical, morphological and biochemical findings were consistent with McArdle's disease. Molecular genetic studies revealed that the patient did not harbor the common Arg49Stop mutation and was homozygous for the Gly204Ser mutation. Until now, no patient having the missense mutation in the two alleles has been documented. ( info)

5/99. Molecular characterization of McArdle's disease in two large Finnish families.

    We have studied two large unrelated Finnish families with myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle's disease). In one, we identified a new nonsense mutation at codon 540 in exon 14 of the myophosphorylase gene, changing an encoded glutamic acid to a stop codon (E540X). The second family carried a splice-junction mutation at the 5' splice site of intron 14 (1844 G-->A), previously reported in one Caucasian patient and in a consanguineous Druze family. These data further enlarge the list of mutations associated with McArdle's disease and establish that McArdle's disease is genetically heterogeneous also within the Finnish population. ( info)

6/99. A missense mutation W797R in the myophosphorylase gene in a Spanish patient with McArdle's disease.

    We identified a novel missense mutation in the myophosphorylase gene (PYGM) in a Spanish patient with McArdle's disease. This homozygous T-to-C transition results in the replacement of a highly conserved tryptophan at amino acid position (aa) 797 with an arginine in the C-terminal domain of the PYGM protein. The lack of enzyme activity in the proband's muscle is consistent with a crucial role of the aa 797 in the normal function of the PYGM protein. Our data further expand the genetic heterogeneity in patients with McArdle's disease. ( info)

7/99. Myophosphorylase deficiency: two different molecular etiologies.

    Two different forms of myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle's disease) can be distinguished through the presence or absence of the protein subunit corresponding to phosphorylase in muscle extracts analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two patients showed a complete absence of the phosphorylase protein subunit, while another patient had an increased quantity of an apparently defective phosphorylase protein subunit. On the basis of these observations, the existence of two distinct subtypes of phosphorylase deficiency can be inferred. ( info)

8/99. Dominant inheritance of McArdle syndrome.

    Myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle syndrome) is an uncommon condition characterized by exercise intolerance, muscle cramping, and myoglobinuria. Although the original report by McArdle dealt with a sporadic case, subsequent cases reported in the literature show high familial incidence and consanguinity, implying that the defect is transmitted as a rare recessive gene or a possible sex-limited mode of inheritance. The present report describes the clinical, histoenzymatic, and biochemical findings in a 40-year-old woman with myophosphorylase deficiency. The family history reveals that four other members are also affected: an older sister, a younger brother, a 10-year-old son, and her 75-year-old mother, and possibly her maternal grandmother. Because of this particular pattern of direct transmission in this family, a dominant inheritance is postulated. ( info)

9/99. Myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle's disease): report of a family.

    The clinical and biochemical findings are presented of two brothers suffering from McArdle's disease (Myophosphorylase Deficiency). Tissue enzyme estimations and lactate levels were done in affected and non-affected members of the family. Affected members showed absence of phosphorylase enzyme by histochemical and quantitative estimation. No quantitative abnormalities were found in other enzyme systems of glycolytic pathways in the family investigated. Various other aspects of clinical features, biochemical abnormalities and inheritance are discussed. ( info)

10/99. Two homozygous mutations (R193W and 794/795 delAA) in the myophosphorylase gene in a patient with McArdle's disease.

    We report two novel homozygous mutations in the myophosphorylase gene (PYGM) in a patient with McArdle's disease. A C-to-T transition that changed an arginine to tryptophan at codon 193 (R193W) in exon 5, and a deletion of two adenine base pairs in exon 20 at codon 794/795 (794/795 delAA) were identified. Several lines of evidence suggest the pathogenicity of both mutations: (i) they were the only nucleotide alteration in the coding region and adjacent exon/intron boundaries of the PYGM gene; (ii) the R193W mutation leads to the replacement of a highly conserved amino acid residue involved in glucose-6-P binding, and the 794/795 delAA mutation predicts a frameshift and premature termination of the protein; (iii) 60 normal controls and 20 disease controls did not have the mutations in their 160 alleles. Hum Mutat 15:294, 2000. ( info)
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