Cases reported "Glycosuria, Renal"

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1/4. Identification of a novel form of renal glucosuria with overexcretion of arginine, carnosine, and taurine.

    Glucosuria occurs in diabetes mellitus, generalized proximal tubular dysfunction of Fanconi's syndrome, glucose-galactose malabsorption syndrome, and primary renal glucosuria. patients with primary renal glucosuria have normal blood glucose levels, normal oral glucose tolerance test results, and persistent glucosuria that may approach the filtered load of glucose in the most severe cases. The primary defect is proposed to be in the sodium-glucose cotransporter type-2 (SGLT2) located in the apical membrane of S1 segment proximal renal tubule cells. Primary renal glucosuria is classified as types A, B, or O based on the characteristics of the transport defect. The magnitude of glucosuria has varied from 20 to 150 g of glucose excreted in 24 hours. Described inheritance patterns have included both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive mechanisms. Some cases have been associated with selective aminoaciduria, distinctly unlike the generalized aminoaciduria seen in Fanconi's syndrome. We report the first case of primary renal glucosuria with selective overexcretion of arginine, carnosine, and taurine. This case may represent a genetic defect unique from the abnormalities in previously described cases of primary renal glucosuria with different amino acid excretion patterns. Future investigations could determine whether the syndrome involves a defect in the SGLT2 gene.
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2/4. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and glycosuria.

    Renal glycosuria associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors has been previously reported in two patients. A third patient was studied who developed isolated glycosuria associated with lisinopril therapy. As in the two previously described patients, this patient had a normal serum glucose level, underlying hypertension, and onset of glycosuria between 2 and 16 weeks after initiation of therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. The patient had renal artery stenosis with elevated renin levels. Age, time until resolution of glycosuria, and a rise in serum creatinine level did not have a consistent relationship with glycosuria associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. Since glycosuria was the only defect noted, without evidence of any other urinary solutes, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may exert an effect on the glucose-specific proximal tubule transport system.
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3/4. hypercalciuria in children with renal glycosuria: evidence of dual renal tubular reabsorptive defects.

    During the past 5 years, we have identified idiopathic hypercalciuria in five of seven patients referred for evaluation of renal glycosuria between 1985 and 1991. The children, all boys, ranged in age from 6 to 12 years. Endocrine function was normal, and none of the patients had hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia, renal tubular acidosis, or other secondary causes of hypercalciuria. The calcium/creatinine ratio in a fasting urine specimen was elevated in all five children who had hypercalciuria, with a mean value ( /- SD) of 0.34 /- 0.06 (normal, < 0.2). In one child who had renal colic with spontaneous passage of gravel-like material, the idiopathic hypercalciuria persisted after 1 week on a diet containing 2000 mg of sodium and 300 mg of calcium. On the basis of studies that examined the site along the nephron responsible for hypercalciuria in rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes, we speculate that in children with renal glycosuria, there is defective reabsorption of glucose and calcium in the straight portion of the proximal tubule or in the collecting duct. It is likely that a similar mechanism accounts for the idiopathic hypercalciuria in children with diabetes mellitus.
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4/4. Renal glucosuria due to SGLT2 mutations.

    Isolated renal glucosuria results from mutations in SGLT2, which codes for an active transporter specific for d-glucose and expressed in the luminal membrane of the renal proximal tubule. In affected individuals, glucosuria leads to pursuit of hyperglycemia to exclude defects in glucose metabolism, and to investigation of renal proximal tubular function to exclude renal fanconi syndrome. Here we present clinical and molecular data regarding a 19-year-old woman with isolated glucosuria. She was compound heterozygous for two SGLT2 mutations, i.e., a new missense mutation, T200K, and a known missense mutation, N654S.
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