Cases reported "Gonadal Dysgenesis"

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1/36. A frame shift mutation in the dna-binding domain of the androgen receptor gene associated with complete androgen insensitivity, persistent mullerian structures, and germ cell tumors in dysgenetic gonads.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the molecular, cytogenetic, immunohistochemical, and endocrinologic characteristics of a young 46,XY female with persistent mullerian structures and germ cell tumors in dysgenetic gonads. DESIGN: Descriptive case study. SETTING: Mackay Memorial Hospital and National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, taiwan. PATIENT(S): A 22-year-old 46,XY female with persistent mullerian structures, a low level of serum testosterone, and no apparent adnexal masses. INTERVENTION(S): Laparoscopic removal of the dysgenetic gonads. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Detection of an androgen receptor gene mutation by a semiautomated dna sequencer, of the chromosomal complement by cytogenetic examination, of placental alkaline phosphatase activity by immunohistochemical analysis, and of neoplasms in dysgenetic gonads by histologic studies. RESULT(S): A unilateral gonadoblastoma and a contralateral gonadoblastoma associated with a dysgerminoma were found in the excised gonads. The tumors had a 46,XY complement. Placental alkaline phosphatase was present in the tumor cells. A frameshift mutation in the dna-binding domain of the androgen receptor gene was detected in the patient's blood and the tumor tissues. A five-nucleotide "AGGAA" deletion at codons 608 and 609 of the androgen receptor gene resulted in a missing arginine and lysine as well as a frameshift that introduced a stop codon 12 amino acid downstream from the mutation. CONCLUSION(S): Molecular genetic analysis of the androgen receptor gene aids in the rapid diagnosis of complete androgen insensitivity irrespective of atypical clinical phenotypes and endocrinologic parameters.
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2/36. Morphometry and histology of gonads from 13 children with dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism.

    BACKGROUND: Dysgenetic male pseudohermaphroditism (DMP) is a sexual differentiation disorder characterized by bilateral dysgenetic testes, persistent mullerian structures, and cryptorchidism in individuals with a 46,XY karyotype. However, the histologic criteria for the diagnosis of DMP are poorly established. OBJECTIVE: To determine gonadal histology in children with DMP. patients AND methods: Between 1996 and 1998, 13 patients with DMP were evaluated on our service. The clinical diagnosis of DMP was based on a 46,XY karyotype, sex ambiguity, high levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and low levels of antimullerian hormone, a decreased testosterone response to human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation without accumulation of testosterone precursors, and the presence of mullerian structures. Molecular sequencing the HMGbox region of the SRY gene did not reveal any mutations. Biopsies were performed for 22 of 26 gonads (patient age at the time of biopsy, 16 months to 10 years). Conventional microscopy was used to evaluate mean tubular diameter, tubular fertility index, and number of sertoli cells per tubular profile. RESULTS: All 26 gonads were located outside of the labioscrotal folds. Their histologic features varied from only a reduction in tubular size to features of a streak gonad. Five of the 22 gonads grossly resembled a streak gonad. The mean tubular diameter was severely reduced (>30% reduction relative to the normal tubular diameter for the patient's age) in 4 gonads, markedly reduced (10%-30%) in 11 gonads, slightly reduced (<10%) in one gonad, and normal in one gonad. The tubular fertililty index, expressed as the percentage of tubular profiles containing germ cells, was severely reduced (<30% of normal values) in 9 gonads, markedly reduced (50%-30%) in 2 gonads, and normal in 6 gonads. The number of sertoli cells per tubular profile was elevated in 16 gonads and normal in one gonad. Thin tubules surrounded by fibrous tissue were occasionally observed. CONCLUSION: The histologic findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis of DMP in every patient in the present series. However, gonadal histology was variable, and careful morphometric evaluation may be necessary to establish the diagnosis.
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3/36. XY female with a dysgerminoma and no mutation in the coding sequence of the SRY gene.

    We report a 46,XY 11-year-old girl with pure gonadal dysgenesis who developed a dysgerminoma. The testis-determining gene SRY, a candidate for sex reversal, whose alterations seem to correlate with dysgerminoma, was analyzed and found to be normal; its coding sequence was negative for deletions and mutations. DMRT-1 gene mapping on 9p and DAX-1 on Xp21 were also normal. These results suggest the involvement of other genes in sex reversal and call into question the putative relationship between SRY alterations and dysgerminoma.
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4/36. Molecular analysis of frasier syndrome: mutation in the WT1 gene in a girl with gonadal dysgenesis and nephronophthisis.

    The Wilms' tumor gene (WT1) encodes a protein that is believed to exert transcriptional and tumor-suppressor activities. Mutations in this gene have occasionally been associated with Wilms' tumor (<15% patients) and, more consistently, with three syndromes characterized by urogenital abnormalities (WAGR, Denys-Drash and Frasier syndromes). We report 17 years follow-up of a 29 year-old phenotypic female with 46,XY karyotype, gonadal dysgenesis and nephronophthisis in order to identify possible germline alterations of the WT1 gene. frasier syndrome was suspected and confirmed by genetic analysis. Sequence analysis permitted the identification of an A40-->G mutation in position 5 in the donor splice site of intron 9. During surgery for streak gonads extirpation, a microscopic gonadoblastoma was found, a typical complication of frasier syndrome.
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5/36. A case of simultaneous bilateral nonseminomatous testicular tumors in persistent mullerian duct syndrome.

    Persistent mullerian duct syndrome is characteristically associated with unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism. Like other undescended testes, these gonads are at an increased risk of malignant transformation. We report a case of synchronous bilateral mixed germ cell tumors in the cryptorchid testes of a patient with the persistent mullerian duct syndrome.
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6/36. A 46,XY female with mixed gonadal dysgenesis and a 48,XY, 7, i(12p) chromosome pattern in a primary gonadal tumor.

    cytogenetic analysis of a primary germ-cell tumor originating from the streak gonad of a 20-year-old phenotypic female with a 46,XY karyotype and mixed gonadal dysgenesis revealed a 48,XY, 7, i(12p) chromosomal pattern. Germ-cell tumors originating from gonads of normal males are usually highly aneuploid. An isochromosome 12p as well as an overrepresentation of chromosome 7 material are among the specific changes most consistently observed. The present case shows that tumors of dysgenetic gonads, albeit being near-diploid, may exhibit similar chromosomal changes. This observation lends additional support to the hypothesis that these specific cytogenetic anomalies may play an important role in the pathogenesis of human germ-cell tumors.
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7/36. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis. A review of 15 patients reporting single cases of malignant intratubular germ cell neoplasia of the testis, endometrial adenocarcinoma, and a complex vascular anomaly.

    The clinicopathologic features of 15 patients with mixed gonadal dysgenesis are presented with special regard to cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. Seven (47%) cases, all phenotypic females, had gonadal tumors: gonadoblastoma (5), germinoma (4), malignant intratubular germ cell neoplasia (1), and a unique gonadal stromal tumor (1). gonadoblastoma was found in 4 of 10 testes and 4 of 17 streak gonads, and associated with germinoma in 4 cases. One patient developed grade 1 endometrial adenocarcinoma after estrogen therapy. cardiovascular diseases (ie, bicuspid aortic valve, and a unique right aortic arch with a retroesophageal arch segment, aberrant left subclavian artery, coarctation, and dissection) are documented in our series. At the time of diagnosis of mixed gonadal dysgenesis, removal of streak gonads or testes will prevent further gonadal tumor development Cardiovascular examination may identify treatable and potentially lethal disease.
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8/36. Bilateral synchronous tumors in testes in unrecognized mixed gonadal dysgenesis: a case report and review of literature.

    A case of germ cell tumor occurring simultaneously in the descended and undescended testes of an infertile phenotypic man is reported. Cytogenetic studies revealed a 46XY pattern. Exploration of the abdomen showed a left testicular mass in close proximity to a rudimentary uterus, a fallopian tube and a right testicular mass in the scrotum. Complete excision of both testicular masses and the uterus with the adnexa was done. Histologically, both tumors were seminoma. The patient was well 2 years after treatment.
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9/36. Studies on gonadal dysgenesis: variable expressivity of the XY testicular dysgenesis syndrome; two case reports.

    Two adult unrelated XY phenotypically female individuals with sexual infantilism and genital ambiguity were studied. mosaicism was ruled out by the assessment of a normal 46,XY karyotype in four different cell lines. Persistently elevated LH and FSH serum levels with concomitant normal pituitary Gn-RH responsiveness were found. Baseline serum testosterone concentrations were low, but they exhibited a slight though significant rise following HCG stimulation. Surgical and histological findings included the presence of Mullerian and Wolffian derivatives and small bilateral dysgenetic testes with absence of germ cell epithelium, scarce sertoli cells, and hyperplastic leydig cells. The overall data indicated an anatomo-functional testicular impairment particularly confined to the tubular compartment. By comparing the clinical and endocrine features of this incomplete form of the XY testicular dysgenesis with the complete and other unusual forms, further evidence is provided of a wide heterogeneity of the syndrome, and a more detailed classification is proposed.
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10/36. Familial 46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis and gonadoblastoma/dysgerminoma: case report.

    The case reports of two sisters admitted for evaluation of primary amenorrhea are presented. Gynecological and endocrinological investigations and chromosomal analysis led to the diagnosis of familial 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Both sisters underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy. Histological examination revealed dysgenetic gonads with gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma. Five years after treatment by surgery and irradiation the patients are well and free of recurrence. These cases again confirm the risk of malignancy and the necessity of prophylactic gonadectomy in all patients with gonadal dysgenesis and Y chromosomal material.
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