Cases reported "Graft vs Host Disease"

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1/80. Successful one antigen mismatched bone marrow transplant for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) after two failed syngeneic transplants.

    In May 1989, a 43-year-old woman with chronic myelocytic leukemia diagnosed in 1988 underwent a syngeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT), conditioned with cyclophosphamide-TBI while in chronic phase. Three years later, because of both cytogenetic and hematological relapse, she was treated with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and hydroxyurea (HU) for 3 years. In 1994 while still in chronic phase, she was conditioned with busulfan-cyclophosphamide (BU-CY) and underwent a second syngeneic BMT. In 1996, following a further cytogenetic and hematological relapse, she was again placed on IFN-alpha and HU therapy for 13 months, when she was referred to our hospital in accelerated phase. In October 1997 following thiotepa, CY and anti-thymocyte globulin conditioning, she underwent an allogeneic BMT from her 1-Ag mismatched brother. She became Ph1 negative with full chimerism and normal hematological parameters; acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade 3 of the skin and chronic GVHD of the liver occurred. At 11 months follow-up she is in good clinical condition and with a Karnofsky score of 90%. The role of a graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect in securing and maintaining the complete remission is discussed.
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2/80. Hematopoietic donor chimerism and graft-versus-myeloma effect in relapse of multiple myeloma after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    A large group of patients relapsing after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) have obtained remission after infusion of leukocytes from their original donor, suggesting a graft-versus-myeloma effect. However, side effects such as graft-versus-host disease and myelosuppression are severe, and sometimes fatal, complications of this therapeutic approach. Previously we demonstrated that patients with leukemia who lack donor hematopoiesis in relapse after BMT experience severe and lasting aplasia after infusion of donor leukocytes. In two patients - one with extramedullary and one with marrow relapse after a sex-mismatched transplantation - we analyzed hematopoietic chimerism by cell sorting and bone marrow cultures. CD34-positive cells, CD4-CD8-positive cells, committed progenitors, and LTC-IC were of donor origin, as demonstrated by two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Additionally, in relapse complete donor T-cell chimerism was seen. In contrast, plasma cells were of recipient origin in the patient who had a relapse in the bone marrow. Both patients were treated with infusions of donor leukocytes from their original donor. Neither patient suffered myelosuppression, and one achieved a stable complete remission.
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3/80. Simultaneous cord blood transplantation of ex vivo expanded together with non-expanded cells for high risk leukemia.

    In the absence of a donor alternative a stem cell transplantation consisting of two cord blood components originating from the haploidentical brother was performed in a 2-year-old girl with c-ALL, early CNS relapse and 7% of blast cells in the BM 14 days before transplantation. Because of various ongoing infectious complications at that time, 1/8 of the immunogenetically acceptable sibling cord blood was ex vivo expanded 10 days before the transplantation date. The total CB consisting of 1.17 x 10(9) NC was cryopreserved in four separate bags. The one containing 1/8 of the total CB with 1.4 x 10(8) NC CliniMACS selected CD34 cells was expanded in the presence of 100 ng/ml G-CSF, 100 ng/ml TPO and 100 ng/ml flt3-L in 10% autologous CB plasma and X-VIVO 10 medium at day -10 before transplantation. This expanded cell population was sterile and consisted of about 60% granulocytic cells (CD13 , CD15 ), about 30% myelomonocytic cells (CD14, HLA-DR ), 5.2% megakaryocytes (CD61 ) and 1.2% CD34 cells. The proportion of T (CD3 ), NK cells (CD56 ) as well as dendritic cells (CD83 ) was below 0.2%. The unseparated CB infused at day 0 and 1 consisted of a total of thawed 4.4 x 10(7) NC/kg BW, 5.8 x 10(4) CFU-GM/kg BW, 1.54 x 10(5) CD34 cells/kg BW and 7. 73 x 10(2) LTC-IC/kg BW. In addition, the 1 x 10(7) NC/kg BW ex vivo expanded cells representing 1.9 x 10(4) CFU-GM/kg BW, 1.13 x 10(5) CD34 cells/kg BW and 4.37 x 10(2) LTC-IC/kg BW, were infused at day 1. At day 2 after transplantation the patient revealed a focal pneumonia on X-ray with generalized sepsis and became catecholamine dependent. From day 4 the patient received 280 microg/m2 G-CSF. At day 5 she developed an erythroderma, which could not be identified as acute GVHD by biopsy. Early engraftment with leukocyte counts at days 8 and 14 were 350 and 700/microl, ANC 310 and 410/microl, respectively. Donor cells determined by chimerism analysis were 97% and 98% in the periphery at this early time. Most importantly, the pneumonia as well as the septicemia subsided within a few days. Notably, as well is the clearly shortened aplastic phase observed after this simultaneous CB cell component transplantation. The patients T cell and NK cell reconstitution could be detected at day 37 with 330 CD3 cells/microl and 40 CD56 cells/microl, respectively. The time to reach an absolute platelet count of 20 000 (50 000)/microl was 75 (103) days. The disease-free survival now exceeds 1 year in complete remission without chronic GVHD or any other health problems. These data show that the applicability of ex vivo expanded committed progenitors and LTC-IC, even in high risk leukemia at the time of transplantation, is feasible and can provide sufficient myeloid progenitors resulting in rapid engraftment able to clear bacterial pneumonia and sepsis. In addition, accelerated hematopoietic reconstitution apparently served as a well functioning platform for definitive graft-versus-leukemia activity. This transplantation of defined ex vivo generated components presents a feasible and generally applicable approach and may open a promising new avenue for cell therapy in malignant diseases.
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4/80. Graft-versus-tumor induction with donor leukocyte infusions as primary therapy for patients with malignancies.

    PURPOSE: Histocompatible allogeneic donor leukocyte infusions (DLIs) were administered as primary cancer therapy in a phase I trial to determine (1) whether mixed chimerism could be detected without a prior allogeneic transplantation, (2) the toxicity of primary DLI, and (3) whether a graft-versus-tumor (GVT) reaction could be observed. patients AND methods: Eighteen patients were studied. patients received interferon alfa-2b for a minimum of 4 weeks, followed by DLI (level 1). patients with no toxicity or engraftment were eligible to receive cytarabine or cyclophosphamide followed by another course of DLI (level 2). Engraftment was determined using polymerase chain reaction amplification of donor and host-specific dna polymorphisms. RESULTS: Donor cells were detected in the blood in 14 of 16 assessable patients within 1 hour of DLI. chimerism detectable 4 weeks after DLI was observed in four patients, and five patients were not assessable. Prior autologous transplantation was associated with late chimerism (P =.0014). Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurred in four of 16 assessable patients (grade 1, two patients; grade 2, one patient; grade 4, one patient). One patient with grade 4 acute GVHD developed pancytopenia. Only the four patients treated after prior autologous transplantation developed acute GVHD (P =.0005). Three of four patients with acute GVHD and late chimerism responded to primary DLI, and one patient was not assessable for response. CONCLUSION: Allogeneic adoptive immunotherapy resulted in sustained chimerism, acute GVHD, and a GVT response in heavily pretreated patients. This indicates that it may be possible to generate a direct GVT response for patients with malignancies without the need for intensive conditioning therapy immediately before DLI. immunosuppression may be required for sustained donor cell engraftment.
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5/80. A successful cord blood transplant in a child with second accelerated phase chronic myeloid leukemia following lymphoid blast crisis.

    We describe a 5-year-old girl with Ph( ) CML who received a cord blood transplant in a second accelerated phase after a very early lymphoid blast crisis. She was induced into CR by ALL-directed chemotherapy and then maintained with IFN-alpha2b together with weekly rotational chemotherapy. Nineteen months after diagnosis, her mother gave birth to an HLA-compatible sibling, whose cord blood was cryopreserved. The patient's second acceleration occurred 22 months after the CML diagnosis. The subsequent conditioning regimen included busulfan 16 mg/kg, Ara-C 12 g/m2 and melphalan 140 mg/m2. In order to prevent GVHD, CsA alone was administered, 3 mg/kg i.v. per day for a total of 40 days. The total number of nucleated cells infused was 0.8 x 108/kg, with CD34 cells 1.8 x 106/kg and CFU-GM 1 x 104/kg. Engraftment occurred on day 35. Respiratory distress, severe VOD and grade II acute gastrointestinal GVHD complicated the post-transplant period. No chronic GVHD occurred. The girl is alive 23 months after transplantation with complete donor chimerism; both Ph chromosome and bcr/abl rna are negative. bone marrow transplantation (2000) 25, 213-215.
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6/80. Rapid method for the analysis of peripheral chimerism in suspected graft-versus-host disease after liver transplantation.

    The effects of microchimerism and possible tolerance have been well studied in orthotopic liver transplantation. In some patients, greater levels of donor cells persist in the periphery. These cells were characterized and their effects on clinical outcome were studied. Peripheral blood was obtained from patients at various times posttransplantation. HLA class II typing was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer method on unfractionated blood and lymphocyte subpopulations. Relative levels of amplification of donor and recipient alleles were compared. All patients studied had a low degree of chimerism that was most apparent in the CD8( )T/natural killer (NK) cell population. One patient with persistently high levels of donor alleles in his CD8( )T/NK cell population was diagnosed with severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and died of opportunistic infections. Another patient with biopsy-proven GVHD was chimeric in several cell populations. On resolution of her symptoms, donor alleles were reduced to levels undetectable by this assay. These results suggest that persistently elevated levels of donor CD8( )T/NK cells in the periphery may indicate GVHD in liver transplant recipients. This technique aids in rapid diagnosis, which facilitates appropriate treatment and thus may improve clinical outcome.
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7/80. Graft-versus-host disease after liver transplantation: documentation by fluorescent in situ hybridisation and human leucocyte antigen typing.

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after liver transplantation is uncommon and the outcome is often fatal. A firm diagnosis of GVHD is difficult because the clinical triad of skin rash, marrow failure and diarrhoea can be indistinguishable from drug reaction or viral infection, and the presence of donor lymphocyte chimerism is not specific. We describe a case of severe GVHD in a female patient after liver transplantation from a male cadaveric donor. skin biopsy showed characteristic changes of GVHD. Using Y-chromosome-specific fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH), male lymphocytes were demonstrated in 10% of marrow cells and in 90% of lymphocytes infiltrating the dermal epidermal junction. Donor human leucocyte antigens (HLAs) were detected in the peripheral blood, buccal mucosa and skin by polymerase chain reaction. The GVHD subsided with steroid and anti-thymocyte globulin, but recurred on tailing off of treatment. Despite maximum supportive therapy, including random donor leucocyte infusion, and marrow infusion from a HLA-identical sibling, the patient succumbed to sepsis. Our results showed the utility of combining morphological features with molecular techniques using FISH and HLA typing in confirming a diagnosis of GVHD.
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8/80. Transplantation of autologous and allogeneic bone marrow with liver from a cadaveric donor for primary liver cancer.

    BACKGROUND: In histocompatibility mismatched experimental animals, a combination of T-cell-depleted autologous and allogeneic marrow may induce mixed chimerism and tolerance. patients with large primary liver tumors have a poor outcome. We investigated whether it were possible to induce mixed chimerism and obtain an antitumor effect in a patient with a large primary liver cancer after combined liver and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). methods: A 46-year-old female with a primary non resectable liver cancer received a liver transplant from a cadaveric donor. Subsequently, she was conditioned with 4x2 Gy of total lymphoid irradiation, 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, and 7.5 Gy total body irradiation. Twelve days after liver transplantation, she received T-cell-depleted autologous:cadaveric 5/6 antigen HLA-mismatched marrow in a proportion of CD34 cells of 0.5:3.0x10(6)/kg. chimerism status was determined with polymerase chain reaction amplification of variable number tandem repeats from dna obtained from CD3 , CD19 , and CD45 magnetic-bead-separated cells. RESULTS: The early posttransplant period was uneventful; liver function was normal and the hematopoietic engraftment of donor and recipient origin was prompt. Alpha-fetoprotein levels dropped from 440 to 35 microg/l. One month after marrow transplantation, donor T-cells decreased markedly. Monoclonal antibody OKT-3 and 10(5)/kg donor T-cells were given. One month later, the patient developed diarrhea and abdominal pain. A colonoscopy showed moderate gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease and a cryptosporidium infection. Three months after BMT, she became a complete donor chimera. chimera cells showed little, if any, reactivity in mixed lymphocyte cultures to recipient and donor cells, but reacted to third party. Five months after BMT, she developed progressive aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia and died. No tumor was found at the autopsy. CONCLUSION: We obtained mixed donor-recipient hematopoietic chimerism without severe acute graft-versus-host-disease, after combined T-cell depleted autologous and allogeneic BMT and a transplantation of a liver from an HLA-mismatched cadaveric donor. Additional donor T-cells enhanced donor bone marrow engraftment, but rejected the autograft. On the basis of this first attempt, further clinical studies are warranted.
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9/80. Graft vs autoimmunity following allogeneic non-myeloablative blood stem cell transplantation in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia and severe systemic psoriasis and psoriatic polyarthritis.

    OBJECTIVE: No specific therapy exists for autoimmune diseases caused by self-reactive lymphocytes. As shown in experimental animals, which led to pilot clinical studies, elimination of self-reactive lymphocytes can be accomplished with high-dose chemoradiotherapy, followed by autologous stem cell transplantation, by re-establishment of unresponsiveness to self antigens of newly generated lymphocytes, due to a mechanism of central clonal deletion. We hypothesized that self-reactive lymphocytes causing autoimmune disease may be successfully eliminated by highly immunosuppressive yet not necessarily myeloablative conditioning in conjunction with allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation, since immunocompetent alloreactive lymphocytes of donor origin can effectively eliminate residual host-type hematopoietic cells, self-reactive lymphocytes included, by a mechanism that resembles graft-vs-leukemia (GVL) effects. The present report is an attempt to confirm the existence of graft-vs-autoimmunity (GVA) effects in parallel with amplification of the alloreactive potential of donor lymphocytes following allogeneic non-myeloablative stem cell transplantation (NST). methods: We identified a patient with severe psoriatic arthritis who also had philadelphia (bcr/abl) positive chronic myelogenous leukemia and therefore was fully eligible for NST. Both diseases responded initially to non-myeloablative conditioning involving fludarabine 30 mg/m2 x 6, anti-T-lymphocyte globulin 10 mg/kg X 4, and busulfan 4 mg/kg x 2. RESULTS: The initial NST procedure was uneventful and resulted in elimination of all signs of autoimmunity (psoriasis and arthritis). recurrence of polyarthritis and exacerbation of psoriasis were observed in parallel with a significant increase in the proportion of male (host) dna, and 5% of the mitoses were bcr/abl positive, indicating an increase in the clone of CML. Both bcr/abl-positive cells identified by RT-PCR and psoriatic arthritis were successfully eliminated following discontinuation of anti-GVHD prophylaxis with cyclosporine A (CSA), which resulted in activation of the alloreactive potential of donor T cells, accompanied by graft-vs-host disease (GVHD), suggesting the existence of GVA effects. RT-PCR for bcr/abl remains consistently negative for nearly 3 years, and all dna remains donor type. CONCLUSIONS: The response of autoimmune disease manifestations to GVA effects in parallel with elimination of all host-derived hematopoietic cells supports our working hypothesis that autoimmune diseases caused by self-reactive lymphocytes may be effectively treated by elimination of alloreactive self-reactive lymphocytes following induction of host-vs-graft tolerance, in analogy with replacement of malignant or genetically abnormal host cells following DLI. It is therefore suggested that intentional GVA effects may be inducible by DLI following a conventional or preferably safer non-myeloablative regimen in recipients with life-threatening autoimmune diseases resistant to conventional modalities. Adoptive immunotherapy of autoimmunity may thus involve a two-step procedure: first, inducing host-vs-graft and graft-vs-host transplantation tolerance through a transient stage of mixed chimerism; second, inducing controlled GVA effects, initially by discontinuation of CSA and then, if indicated, by late outpatient DLI to eradicate residual hematopoietic cells of host origin.
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10/80. Fludarabine-based conditioning for allogeneic transplantation in adults with sickle cell disease.

    Although allogeneic transplantation can be curative for patients with sickle cell disease, the toxicity of conditioning regimens has precluded its use in adults with significant end-organ damage. Newer conditioning regimens have been developed that are less toxic and that may broaden the applicability of allogeneic transplantation in this disorder. We report two adults with end-stage sickle cell disease, who underwent allogeneic transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor after conditioning with fludarabine/melphalan and ATG. Both patients had been extensively transfused and one had multiple RBC antibodies. One of the patients also had end-stage renal disease, and was dialysis dependent. Engraftment occurred promptly in both patients. Both achieved 100% donor chimerism and both were free of pain crises after transplant. The first patient died of a respiratory failure related to chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) on day 335 after transplantation. The second patient developed severe gastro-intestinal GVHD and TTP and died on day 147 after transplantation. Conditioning with fludarabine/melphalan and ATG followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation resulted in prompt and reliable engraftment in adults with end-stage sickle cell disease. The incidence of severe GVHD was unacceptably high and may be related to the ethnicity of the patients or to the inflammatory state associated with pre-existing sickle cell disease.
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