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1/7. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis due to Enterococcus cecorum.

    Enterococcus cecorum was isolated as the etiologic agent of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis episode in an alcoholic patient. To date, this is only the third infection due to this bacterium, found in the intestinal tract of many domestic animals, that has been reported in humans.
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keywords = animal
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2/7. Once-daily aminoglycoside in the treatment of enterococcus faecalis endocarditis: case report and review.

    Once-daily administration of aminoglycosides (ODA) is effective and safe for many indications. By optimizing pharmacodynamic principles, it enhances bactericidal activity and minimizes toxicity. Its use for the treatment of enterococcal infection is controversial, however, and results of in vitro studies and animal models of endocarditis are conflicting. To date, no case reports or clinical trials have examined its utility in human enterococcal endocarditis. A patient with right-sided endocarditis caused by enterococcus faecalis was managed by once-daily gentamicin. Clinical and bacteriologic cures of this patient raise questions as to whether enterococcal endocarditis should be regarded as contraindication to ODA. The clinical utility of ODA in this disease deserves further investigation.
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keywords = animal
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3/7. Community-acquired vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecium: a case report from malaysia.

    vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are formidable organisms renowned for their ability to cause infections with limited treatment options and their potential for transferring resistance genes to other gram-positive bacteria. Usually associated with nosocomial infections, VRE are rarely reported as a cause of community-acquired infection. Presented here is a case of community-acquired infection due to vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecium. The patient had been applying herbal leaves topically to his cheek to treat a buccal space abscess, resulting in a burn of the overlying skin. From pus aspirated via the skin a pure culture of E. faecium was grown that was resistant to vancomycin with a MIC of >256 microg ml-1 by the E test and resistant to teicoplanin by disc diffusion, consistent with the VanA phenotype. The organism was suspected of contaminating the leaf and infecting the patient via the burnt skin. This case highlights the need for further studies on the community prevalence of VRE among humans and animals to define unrecognized silent reservoirs for VRE, which may pose a threat to public health.
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keywords = animal
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4/7. arcanobacterium haemolyticum associated with pyothorax: case report.

    arcanobacterium haemolyticum has an established role in the etiology of human pharyngitis. There are increasing reports of systemic infections caused by this organism. From india, we report the first case of arcanobacterium haemolyticum causing pyothorax in an immunocompetent adolescent male patient. The probable mode of infection is also discussed. The role of A. hemolyticum as an animal pathogen needs further study.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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5/7. Selecting, testing and understanding probiotic microorganisms.

    The interest in probiotics and the modulation of microbiota for restoring and maintaining health continues to gain momentum. research is fueled by a need to develop alternatives to antibiotics and drugs that have severe side effects. It is recognised that bacteria play a major role in human and animal health, and how scientific advances help to explain how and when probiotics work. This minireview provides an update on critical studies, particularly since 2002, that are helping to explain the mechanisms of action of probiotic organisms.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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6/7. rhabdomyolysis during therapy with daptomycin.

    The use of daptomycin has been associated with an elevation in creatine phosphokinase level, with a reported incidence of 2.8% in phase III clinical trials. Published case reports have documented the presence of myopathy in patients who received daptomycin; however, there have been no previously reported cases of rhabdomyolysis in animals or humans to date. We describe a case of rhabdomyolysis during therapy with daptomycin.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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7/7. Management of animal bite injuries of the face: experience with 94 patients.

    PURPOSE: Because of the large number of bacteria in the oral cavity, animal bite wounds are generally contaminated, and their treatment is difficult because of the risk of infection, especially in extensive injuries. This report describes the management of a large series of patients and recommends treatment guidelines on the basis of the results. patients AND methods: Ninety-four animal bite wounds on the face and head were analyzed according to the type of animal, location and extent of the soft tissue wound, duration and type of surgical treatment, occurrence of infections and their pathogen spectrum, as well as the choice of antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: dogs caused 91% of the bite wounds. Infections developed in 4 of 53 patients who underwent primary wound closure with minor edge excision and prophylactic administration of oral penicillin. Without antibiotic administration, 2 of 15 patients had infections, which were treated on an outpatient basis. Of 26 patients with initially delayed treatment, 18 showed clinical inflammatory symptoms with a wide spectrum of pathogens (escherichia coli, streptococcus, Enterococcus, staphylococcus epidermidis, and proteus) on presentation. CONCLUSION: Extensive animal bite wounds on the face, even with soft tissue defects, should be treated according to the criteria of a esthetic reconstructive facial surgery. In view of the low infection rate, routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not justified.
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ranking = 8
keywords = animal
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