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1/7. alcaligenes xylosoxidans and propionibacterium acnes postoperative endophthalmitis in a pseudophakic eye.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of persistent polymicrobial postoperative endophthalmitis caused by alcaligenes xylosoxidans and propionibacterium acnes in a pseudophakic eye. A. xylosoxidans is a gram-negative bacteria resistant to most antibiotics. methods: Case report. RESULTS: A 72-year-old man presented with clinical signs of endophthalmitis on the first postoperative day after a phacoemulsification procedure with posterior chamber intraocular lens, left eye. Initial treatment included topical, subconjunctival, and oral antibiotics. After initial clearing, there was recrudescence of infection on postoperative day 37 that prompted referral of the patient to the Cullen eye Institute. Treatment at that time included anterior chamber and vitreous taps with intravitreal antibiotic injections. Complete pars plana vitrectomy and intraocular lens explantation were eventually required because of persistent infection with a resistant organism. Cultures from the first procedure grew A. xylosoxidans and P. acnes. Cultures from the vitrectomy grew only A. xylosoxidans. At the final follow-up visit 6 months after the initial procedure. The eye was without inflammation with best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40. CONCLUSION: Both A. xylosoxidans and P. acnes can cause chronic progressive endophthalmitis after cataract extraction often resistant to corrective antibiotic therapy. Successful intervention may require complete vitrectomy with intraocular lens and capsule removal.
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keywords = phacoemulsification
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2/7. propionibacterium acnes endophthalmitis requiring intraocular lens removal after failure of medical therapy.

    A 52-year-old Saudi man developed intraocular inflammation 7 weeks after uneventful phacoemulsification with implantation of a silicone posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL). Cultures from the aqueous and vitreous were repeatedly negative, but a temporary response to intracameral and intravitreal injection of vancomycin was noted. A series of 6 intraocular injections given over 5 days failed to resolve the inflammation. It did, however, disappear after the IOL was removed. The IOL provided the only positive culture in this case of propionibacterium acnes endophthalmitis. Nine months later, a posterior chamber poly(methyl methacrylate) IOL was implanted. Eighteen months later, the patient had no recurrences. He regained a visual acuity of 20/30, corresponding to his best postoperative result.
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keywords = phacoemulsification
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3/7. Acute bilateral postoperative endophthalmitis in a HLA-DQ5-positive patient: possible susceptibility to infections.

    An unusual case of bilateral acute endophthalmitis in association with the HLA-DQ5 histocompatibility antigen is reported. A 35-year-old woman with high myopia and cataracts in both eyes underwent phacoemulsification procedures performed in separate sessions using different viscoelastic substances and following the same strict prophylactic measures. After each surgical procedure, she developed S. epidermidis acute endophthalmitis in the right eye and propionibacterium acnes acute endophthalmitis in the left eye; both were successfully treated with capsular bag irrigation and intracameral vancomycin (1 mg/0.1 mL). She tested positive for the HLA-DQ5 (DQ1), DQ2 antigen. The question is raised as to whether the HLA-DQ5 histocompatibility antigen may be a predisposing factor for both staphylococcal and P. Acnes acute endophthalmitis. A multicenter prospective study is proposed to identify this HLA antigen in all patients scheduled for cataract surgery who have a history of postoperative endophthalmitis in the fellow eye.
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keywords = phacoemulsification
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4/7. Unusual anaerobic bacteria in keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis: diagnosis using molecular biology methods.

    Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) was performed in the left eye of a 57-year-old man for residual ametropia after phacoemulsification. The patient was given topical tobramycin and a corticosteroid for 1 week postoperatively. Fifteen days later, he developed 3 corneal infiltrates beneath the flap with a gas bubble, suggesting an anaerobic infection. tobramycin and ofloxacin were administered every 2 hours, but the condition worsened. Corneal scrapings were taken from beneath the flap for microbiological cultures and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. The PCR amplification was negative for fungi and mycobacteria and positive for bacterial dna. sequence analysis showed Propionibacterium granulosum as the causal agent, but cultures were negative. Treatment with vancomycin and cefazolin led to clinical improvement, with resolution of corneal infiltrates. Anaerobic microorganisms can cause keratitis after LASIK. polymerase chain reaction amplification and dna typing can help detect microorganisms involved in these ocular infections.
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keywords = phacoemulsification
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5/7. Recurrent enterococcus faecalis endophthalmitis after phacoemulsification.

    We present the first reported case of late recurrence of postoperative enterococcus faecalis endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in a 45-year-old diabetic man. culture-positive E faecalis endophthalmitis was diagnosed 2 days after uneventful phacoemulsification. Early vitrectomy with intravitreal and subconjunctival vancomycin and amikacin and topical vancomycin resulted in apparently complete clinical resolution after 4 months and a best corrected visual acuity of 20/25. Recurrent endophthalmitis with hypopyon occurred 7 months postoperatively and resolved with intravitreal vancomycin and topical prednisolone acetate 1%. However, the patient had a similar relapse at 9 months that resulted in deterioration of visual acuity to no light perception despite a repeat vitrectomy, intraocular lens explantation, capsular bag removal, and intravitreal antibiotics. The late recurrences could have been the result of persistent sequestration of the organism in the capsular bag.
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keywords = phacoemulsification
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6/7. Infectious endophthalmitis following sutureless cataract surgery.

    Within the last 6 months, three cases of infectious endophthalmitis following sutureless cataract surgery have been referred to us. Two of these cases followed uncomplicated sutureless phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. One case was complicated by a postoperative hyphema with additional surgery for clot removal 2 days following the initial procedure.
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keywords = phacoemulsification
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7/7. Pathological findings in lens capsule and silicone intraocular lens extracted from eye with chronic infectious endophthalmitis.

    The lens capsule and silicone intraocular lens (IOL) extracted from the eye of a patient with chronic infectious endophthalmitis was examined histopathologically to evaluate the pathology of a capsule and IOL surfaces in the presence of bacterial infection. A 69-year-old man developed an infection in his right eye 4 months after phacoemulsification and aspiration of a cataract and implantation of a silicone IOL. During vitrectomy, the capsule and IOL were extracted and processed for light or scanning electron microscopy. Cryosections of the capsule were subjected to Gram staining and immunohistochemical tests for extracellular matrix components. The lens capsule contained an accumulation of extracellular matrix, including collagen types and fibronectin. A colony of Gram-positive rod bacteria was detected inside the capsular bag. Scanning electron microscopy failed to detect any microorganisms on the IOL surface. Histological examination of cryosections of the extracted capsule confirmed the presence of infection during surgery even though preoperative cultures of intraocular fluid were negative. Immediate antibacterial treatment could be initiated.
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keywords = phacoemulsification
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