Cases reported "Granuloma"

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1/88. Solitary sarcoid granuloma of the cerebellopontine angle: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: sarcoidosis involves the nervous system about 5% of the time and usually manifests as a granulomatous inflammation of the basal meninges and hypothalamus. Cases which are strictly isolated to the central nervous system occur infrequently; rarely, they may present as an intracranial mass. methods: We present the case of a solitary sarcoid granuloma at the cerebellopontine angle in a 42-year-old female who presented with headache, facial numbness, and hearing loss. RESULTS: A suboccipital craniectomy was performed and the lesion was noted to be grossly adherent to the lower cranial nerves and skull base. The lesion was misdiagnosed as a meningioma with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative histology, and perhaps additional morbidity resulted. CONCLUSION: We present this case in order to demonstrate the importance of differentiating these dural-based lesions and propose that cases of neurosarcoidosis presenting as a solitary granuloma be treated with surgical debulking and immunosuppression.
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keywords = nervous system
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2/88. Fibro-osseous lesions of the central nervous system: report of four cases and literature review.

    Fibro-osseous lesions, also reported as calcifying pseudoneoplasms of the neural axis, are uncommon lesions of the CNS. We report four additional cases: two extraaxial and two intraaxial, in patients ages 33, 47, 49, and 59 years at presentation. Fibro-osseous lesions involving the CNS demonstrate variable proportions of fibrous stroma, bone, palisading spindle to epithelioid to multinucleated cells in association with a highly distinctive, perhaps pathognomonic, chondromyxoid-like matrix often distributed in a nodular pattern. This histopathologically distinctive lesion can be seen in many regions of the neuraxis, often with a dural association, and most commonly along the vertebral column. It appears to be a slow-growing lesion and, with wide excision, the prognosis is excellent. The etiology remains unclear, but the preponderance of data favors a reactive rather than neoplastic process. If this putative pseudotumor is not recognized histopathologically, a neoplastic or infectious differential might result in inappropriate investigations and potentially harmful therapies.
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keywords = nervous system
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3/88. Mercury exposure and cutaneous disease.

    Human contact with mercury has been ongoing for centuries and was previously considered a legitimate means of treating different cutaneous and systemic conditions. Toxicity from this heavy metal may occur from exposure to elemental, inorganic, and organic forms of mercury. This article outlines the signs and symptoms of mercury poisoning and the different clinical conditions with assorted cutaneous findings.
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ranking = 0.041496843277239
keywords = metal
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4/88. Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis mimicking an intracranial neoplasm: clinicopathologic features and review of the literature.

    We present a unique case of biopsy-proven necrotizing sarcoidosis involving the central nervous system (CNS) in a 52-year-old woman. The patient presented with a 3-month history of left-sided headache and sharp, shooting pains on the left side of her face. She also has a previous history of sarcoidosis, histopathologically confirmed on parotid gland biopsy 24 years before. Imaging studies of the present lesion revealed a 1.8 x 1.4-cm mass in the left temporal lobe with signal intensity suggestive of meningioma or low-grade glial neoplasm. Surgical resection was initiated, and intraoperative consultation with frozen sections revealed granulomata. The lesion was biopsied, and surgical intervention was terminated. Permanent sections failed to reveal bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi, or foreign bodies. A diagnosis of necrotizing neurosarcoidosis was rendered. The patient was administered steroid therapy and clinically responded favorably. At the most recent follow-up almost 2 years later, there was no evidence of recurrence or progression. Necrotizing sarcoidosis has been reported most commonly in the lungs and rarely in other organ systems. We report the first histologically proven case involving the CNS as well as a rare example of sarcoidosis and necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis in the same patient. sarcoidosis and its necrotizing variant should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a granulomatous mass lesion involving the CNS, particularly in the context of a history of systemic disease.
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keywords = nervous system
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5/88. Giant-cell vasculitides.

    Although many of the vasculitides within the classification of the American College of rheumatology can have a component of granulomatous inflammation with giant cells, two (ie, giant-cell [temporal] arteritis and takayasu arteritis) are characterized by infiltrates that are dominated by granulomatous and/or giant-cell-containing inflammation. Furthermore, granulomatous and/or giant-cell dominant infiltrates can characterize disseminated giant-cell arteritis, granulomatous vasculitis of the central nervous system, localized giant-cell arteritis, mesenteric inflammatory veno-occlusive disease, primary cutaneous phlebitis, and giant-cell phlebitis of mesenteric veins and/or omentum. Like the other systemic vasculitides, there is considerable clinicopathologic overlap between these giant-cell vasculitides. Indeed, they are likely closely related, but how they specifically relate to each other is not clear. Their accurate diagnosis is important; because serious morbidity and even death may occur, if proper treatment is delayed or if excessive immunotherapy is given.
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keywords = nervous system
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6/88. Aggressive granulomatous lesion presenting as tumor in cementless long stem total hip arthroplasty.

    We describe a patient with an aggressive granulomatous lesion around a cementless total hip prosthesis, which simulated a tumor. The granuloma showed a uniform histopathology, which included mononuclear cells and metal wear particles. Aggressive granulomatous lesions in replaced hips are a distinct condition, different from simple loosening or infection; the lesions may grow rapidly, so that revision surgery is indicated soon after diagnosis.
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ranking = 0.041496843277239
keywords = metal
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7/88. Evolution of sarcoid granulomas of the retina.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of a young woman with a history of sarcoidosis who developed retinal granulomas. methods: Case report. RESULTS: A 33-year old woman with history of sarcoidosis with involvement of the central nervous system, confirmed by skin biopsy, bronchoscopy, and neuroimaging, presented with visual loss and was found to have choroidal and optic nerve granulomas in the left eye, and subsequently developed retinal granulomas in the left eye. CONCLUSION: Retinal granuloma is a rare manifestation of sarcoidosis.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = nervous system
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8/88. Granulomatous renal disease in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency.

    common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most common cause of primary hypogammaglobulinemia, is characterized by a decreased serum immunoglobulin level, recurrent infections, and the occurrence of various autoimmune diseases. Granulomatous disease has been reported previously in several patients with CVID, with granuloma occurring in the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, central nervous system, and bone marrow. We report the first published case of renal granulomatous disease in a CVID patient presenting with subacute renal failure. Renal function partially recovered after corticosteroid treatment and intravenous immunoglobulin infusions. The pathogenesis of granulomatous disease in CVID is unclear but may involve monocyte and T-cell abnormalities.
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keywords = nervous system
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9/88. Wear debris from total hip arthroplasty presenting as an intrapelvic mass.

    A granulomatous reaction to the small particles worn off from an implanted prosthesis is a common complication in arthroplasty. The chronic inflammatory response to the wear debris from either the polyethylene or the metal components is thought to be responsible for osteolysis, implant loosening, and finally mechanical failure. Formation of an extra-articular granulomatous tissue mass is uncommon, however. We report a case of a huge granulomatous mass that presented as an intrapelvic tumor. The prosthesis was an Anatomical Medullary Locking (AML) hip arthroplasty with cementless fixation. The polyethylene insert was manufactured by ram extrusion and sterilized with gamma irradiation in air. Fragments of the insert were among the contents in the cystic mass together with black metallic debris. There was no loosening of the prosthesis, and the acetabulum floor was preserved.
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ranking = 0.082993686554478
keywords = metal
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10/88. Intramedullary spinal cryptococcoma: a case report.

    Intramedullary spinal cryptococcosis is very rare. We describe a case of intramedullary spinal cryptococcoma at the T12 level in a 60-year-old man who presented with a 3-month history of progressive bilateral lower limb weakness and no obvious immunocompromise. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a 1.2 cm diameter mass within the spinal cord at T12 with intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images, a slight degree of homogeneous low signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and intense enhancement after infusion of gadopentetate dimeglumine. These findings led to a preoperative diagnosis of intramedullary tumor. After 2 months of postoperative antifungal treatment, the patient's clinical condition had markedly improved. Cryptococcoma should be considered when an enhancing lesion of the spinal cord is found on MR imaging, even in apparently immunocompetent patients. A careful lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid analysis to diagnose cryptococcosis of the central nervous system should be made promptly, as early treatment is associated with a good prognosis.
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keywords = nervous system
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