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1/6. Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood.

    Two boys and one girl suffering from recurrent severe bacterial infections were investigated. All 3 exhibited normal cellular and humoral immunity, normal neutrophil phagocytic ability, and defective neutrophil bacterial capacity. The clinical features and laboratory findings in these patients are diagnostic of chronic granulomatous disease. A sex-linked inheritance pattern was confirmed in 1 patient by the demonstration of a heterozygous carrier state in the mother.
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2/6. Chronic granulomatous disease: an inherited disorder of phagocytosis in a Maori ancestry.

    Chronic granulomatous disease, in which abnormal susceptibility to infection is caused by an inherited defect in phagocytic cells, has been diagnosed in three brothers. Two brothers had repeated bacterial infections of the skin, superficial lymph nodes and lungs from infancy and died aged 27 months and 13 months. Characteristic suppurating granulomata were found in many organs. The diagnosis was established in both during life, and in the third asymptomatic brother shortly after birth, by studies of phagocytic function which included tests for nitroblue-tetrazolium reduction, hexose monophosphate shunt activity and bactericidal capacity. Their mother and a maternal aunt, both Maoris with no known Caucasian ancestry, were identified as carriers of the presumed sex-linked recessive gene. The clinical features of the disease and the laboratory methods for diagnosis are described.
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3/6. Cytochrome b and FAD content in polymorphonuclear leucocytes in a family with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease.

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), an immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by extreme susceptibility to bacterial infections, is due to a defect of the respiratory burst in human phagocytes. nadph oxidase, the enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen and the release of oxidative radicals, was studied in polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) in a family affected by an x-linked inheritance form at high penetrance of the disease. The contents of cytochrome b, suggested as the terminal component of the oxidase electron transport chain, and FAD, the hypothetical proximal component of the chain, were determined in patients and in carriers. Cytochrome b showed the typical behaviour of x-linked CGD: total absence in patients, intermediate values in carriers. FAD content evaluated on plasma membranes was less decreased than cytochrome b. Carriers also showed a decrease of this flavoprotein. Cytochrome b and FAD contents were compared to NBT test and superoxide production: a clear correlation was observed for the cytochrome b, but FAD plasma membrane evaluation could also be an interesting tool for the metabolic characterization of the disease in patients and in carriers.
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4/6. Intrinsic polymorphonuclear chemotactic defect in a boy with chronic granulomatous disease.

    A six year old boy is described who suffured from recurrent and protracted infections of multiple organs by various catalase positive bacteria. A severe episode of osteomyelitis involving several bones was caused by aspergillus fumigatus. Studies of his PMNs revealed impaired metabolic as well as microbicidal functions characteristic of CGD. Chemiluminescence in response to both opsonized zymosan and sodium fluoride was markedly depressed, while control PMNs showed significant responses. Control leukocytes suspended in patient's serum likewise evoked normal chemiluminescence. Microbicidal activity against staphylococcus aureus 502A was also decreased using patient's PMNs, whereas control PMNs were able to reduce the number of colony forming bacteria by 2 logs in 120 minutes. Viable intracellular bacteria after lysis of extracellular bacteria formed 3 X 10(7) colonies from patient's PMNs and less than 2 X 10(5) colonies from the control. NBT dye reduction studies of the family members suggested an x-linked recessive mode of inheritance. The extraordinary nature of this case lies in the discovery of an associated intrinsic cellular defect of chemotaxis involving his polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Specifically, the Rebuck skin window showed predominantly mononuclear cells from 4 up to 24 hours. In addition, the patient's PMNs failed to migrate in response to cultured filtrates of E. coli as the chemoattractant. This abnormality persisted in the presence of autologous plasma or serum as well as in control plasma or serum. Control PMNs showed normal chemotaxis in the presence of the patient's plasma or serum. The extent to which the rare coexistence of these two phenomena influence the clinical disease is not known and remains to be elucidated.
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5/6. Discoid lupus erythematosus-like lesions and stomatitis in female carriers of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease.

    The skin and oral mucosa were studied in an unselected series of carriers of x-linked chronic granulomatous disease, a hereditary condition in which phagocytic cells display a pronounced functional defect. Three carriers had discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE)-like skin lesions which histopathologically were consistent with DLE of the hypertrophic and profundus type. Four patients had experienced photosensitivity in childhood. Seven patients had recurrent aphthous-like stomatitis which should be distinguished from the recurrent aphthous stomatitis seen in otherwise healthy individuals. The remarkably high incidence of DLE-like symptoms in heterozygous carriers might be related to the presence of mixed populations of defective and normal phagocytes. The variable expression of skin symptoms may be related to uneven distribution of abnormal and normal phagocytes. female patients with these clinical symptoms, especially the combination of DLE-like skin lesions and aphthous-like stomatitis, should be suspected of being carriers of chronic granulomatous disease and studies of phagocyte function in vitro should be performed, since the diagnosis of the carrier state is of utmost importance for genetic counselling before pregnancy.
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6/6. Production of oxygen radicals by fibroblasts and neutrophils from a patient with x-linked chronic granulomatous disease.

    Recently, a superoxide-generating NADPH-oxidase system in human fibroblasts has been described. Therefore, we reassessed the possible use of this cell type for prenatal diagnosis of CGD patients comparing normal and CGD peripheral blood neutrophils (PMN) and skin fibroblasts in their reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI)-producing capacity. While PMN of the CGD patient showed a clearly reduced respiratory burst activity, which correlated well with the measured content of cytochrome b558, fibroblasts of the same individual showed no impaired production of superoxide anion or H2O2 upon stimulation by cytokines (TNF and IL-1) or other agents (Ca2 ionophores and PAF, unpublished results). Furthermore, fibroblasts of the CGD patient or of normal donors could be inhibited in ROI production by diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and 2-iodobiphenyl. In contrast to PMN, no inhibition of the fibroblast NADPH-oxidase system was observed using staurosporin, an inhibitor of proteinkinase C. These data demonstrate, in contrast to previous studies, that fibroblasts are able to produce ROI. Nevertheless, since fibroblasts obtained from a CGD patient exhibited no difference in ROI production compared with fibroblasts obtained from healthy donors, they are not suitable for prenatal diagnosis of CGD.
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keywords = x-linked
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