Cases reported "Growth Disorders"

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1/1499. patients with CHARGE association: a model to study saccular function in the human.

    The term CHARGE association refers to a combination of congenital malformations, the mnemonic CHARGE designating the most frequently occurring anomalies in the constellation. "C" indicates coloboma of the retina, "H" heart defects, "A" choanal atresia, "R" retarded growth and/or central nervous system anomalies, "G" genital hypoplasia, and "E" ear anomalies and/or deafness. The inner ear anomaly consists of a specific form of labyrinthine dysplasia that includes Mondini dysplasia of the pars inferior (cochlea and saccule) and complete absence of the pars superior (utricle and semicircular canals). We observed the development of a child with CHARGE association up to the age of 10 years. There was complete absence of nystagmic response to bithermal caloric and rotatory pendular stimuli. A nystagmic reaction was elicited by the off-vertical axis rotation test, indicating stimulation of the saccular macula, the sole remaining vestibular sense organ in this dysplasia. This reaffirms that the saccule is a vestibular organ, even though it is located in the pars inferior. In spite of the severe bilateral vestibular deficit and coloboma of the retina, the child was able to walk at the age of 2 years. The delay in the development of walking was not due to central nervous system anomalies, as suggested by the "R" of the acronym CHARGE, but rather, to the severe sensorineural visual and vestibular deficits.
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2/1499. failure to thrive: a case study in comprehensive care.

    Infants who fail to grow normally may occasionally have a serious organic disease; the majority, however, are suffering from inadequate caloric intake because of a disturbance of the infant-mother relationship. Diagnostic evaluation can usually be brief and institution of therapy often leads to dramatic improvement. This Grand Rounds illustrates the contribution each member of the health-care team can make in solving the immediate problem of failure to thrive and helping provide a wholesome environment for the child's future.
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3/1499. Sporadic bilateral retinoblastoma and 13q- chromosomal deletion.

    Unilateral retinoblastoma (Rb) is usually a sporadic occurrence while bilateral (multifocal) cases are often familial. Sporadic bilateral Rb associated with a long-arm deletion of a D-group chromosome has been reported in 8 children. We have studied a 6-year-old female with bilateral sporadic retinoblastoma, treated during infancy by enucleation and radiotherapy. chromosome banding studies on peripheral lymphocytes revealed an interstitial deletion from the long arm of a chromosome 13: del(13) (q12q14). Three additional patients reported in the literature had interstitial 13q- deletions, involving slightly different though overlapping regions. The only chromosomal region consistently missing in all of these 4 cases appears to be part of the lightly staining band 13q14. We, therefore, propose this site as the precise location of a gene (or genes) involved in retinal development. Our patient lacked features of the classic 13q- or 13-ring syndrome, which involves deletion of a more distal portion of the 13 long arm. When compared to reported patients with Rb and 13q-, it became apparent that there may be a separate recognizable syndrome consisting of moderate growth and developmental delay, characteristic facies and external ears, and bilateral sporadic Rb, which is associated with an interstitial 13q- deletion.
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4/1499. Generalised uridine diphosphate galactose-4-epimerase deficiency.

    The generalised form of epimerase deficiency galactosaemia has been described in only two children from unrelated families. Their progress is reported and three other affected children from these families are described. The initial presentation was similar to classic galactosaemia. Despite treatment all have shown poor growth and moderate learning difficulties. Three have sensorineural deafness and four have pronounced dysmorphic features. The two older female patients have normal pubertal development.
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5/1499. growth hormone insufficiency in a girl with the autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy.

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is an inherited disease which may comprise many endocrine and non-endocrine components. GH insufficiency has not been recognised as a classical manifestation of this syndrome. We describe the case of a girl with APECED, who presented with four endocrine (hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, hypothyroidism, gonadal failure) and three non-endocrine components (candidiasis, ectodermal dystrophy and lichen ruber planus). In addition, growth failure was documented beginning at approximately 8 years; bone age was delayed and stimulated GH peaks after clonidine and arginine were 2.2 and 9.2 microg/l, respectively. A partial empty sella was found on a computed tomography scan of the hypothalamic-pituitary region. At 10.5 years rhGH therapy was started and height gain of 26 cm was observed after 2.7 years of treatment. puberty started at 11.2 years and menarche occurred at 12.7 years. At 13.25 years rhGH therapy was discontinued owing to frequent hypocalcemic crises; serum IGF-1 levels were persistently low in the following years (between 160 and 180 microg/l, normal range for age 250-600 microg/l). The patient attained a final height of 160.8 cm, which was appropriate for her target height. The presence of lichen ruber planus and GH insufficiency probably secondary to empty sella are two unusual findings in patients with APECED.
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6/1499. Long-term follow-up of skeletal dysplasia in thalassaemia major.

    We report skeletal changes due to deferoxamine (DF) in 15/29 patients with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major (TM), followed longitudinally for growth assessment. Clinically the earliest signs were decline in height and/or sitting height growth rate, leg and back pain with restricted movement and limb deformity. Radiologically metaphyseal and spinal changes were seen in 5 subjects and vertebral lesions alone in 10. The metaphyseal changes were mild, moderate or severe and affected all long bones, but were most pronounced at wrists and knees. They progressed from widening of the growth plate and defects of metaphyseal margins to appearance of radiolucent pseudocystic areas and, in severe cases, of cupped, rickets-like metaphyses. The spinal changes proceeded from osseous defects of ventral upper and lower edges of vertebrae and biconvex contours of end-plates to platyspondyly with decreased vertebral body height. After DF dose reduction, metaphyseal changes regressed in 2 patients, while they progressed in 3, requiring corrective surgery for severe valgus knee. Spinal abnormalities either remained unchanged or progressed. Final height was very short in patients with spondylometaphyseal lesions, short and disproportionate in patients with only spinal involvement.
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7/1499. hypercalciuria and urolithiasis in a case of costello syndrome.

    costello syndrome is characterized by postnatal growth deficiency, mental retardation, curly hair, coarse characteristic face, and loose skin of hands and feet. patients with this syndrome have a high incidence of cardiac involvement, including arrhythmia, atrial septal defect, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We report a 16-year-old adolescent female with costello syndrome who presents with hypercalciuria and urolithiasis.
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8/1499. Hemihypertrophy in a boy with renal polycystic disease: varied patterns of presentation of renal polycystic disease in his family.

    Hemihypertrophy is a condition that has been described in association with a variety of other malformations and diseases; quite often these have had a renal origin. -It is the purpose of this paper to record and discuss the occurrence of polycystic disease in a family, to note that the disease was manifest as either the "adult" or the "infantile" form, and detail the fact that one member of the family who had infantile type polycystic disease also had hemihypertrophy. -The pattern of inheritance of renal polycystic disease, its age at presentation and the variation in the boy of its manifestation with the passage of time are discussed. The need for caution in offering a prognosis and genetic counselling is stressed.
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9/1499. failure to thrive and death in early infancy associated with raised urinary homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids.

    A case of failure to thrive in an infant with persistently raised urinary levels of homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids is descirbed. No neural crest tumour was discovered at surgical exploration or at necropsy. The relation of this biochemical abnormality and failure to thrive is unclear.
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10/1499. Mutchinick syndrome in a Japanese girl.

    We report on a 7-year-old Japanese girl with Mutchinick syndrome, a rare congenital malformation syndrome described in a pair of Argentinean sisters and a pair of German brothers; both originating from the same geographic region in the former East prussia. The girl we describe had most of the clinical manifestations of the syndrome, including growth and developmental retardation, and craniofacial anomalies with microcephaly, hypertelorism, a broad straight nose, low-set malformed ears, and a wide, tented mouth. She also had the following hitherto undescribed manifestations: ventricular septal defect, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, bilateral partial soft-tissue syndactyly of second and third toes, and megaloureters. The occurrence of the syndrome in a Japanese girl indicates that the syndrome is not restricted to the descendants of individuals from a confined region in northeastern europe.
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