Cases reported "Growth Disorders"

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1/230. Mutchinick syndrome in a Japanese girl.

    We report on a 7-year-old Japanese girl with Mutchinick syndrome, a rare congenital malformation syndrome described in a pair of Argentinean sisters and a pair of German brothers; both originating from the same geographic region in the former East prussia. The girl we describe had most of the clinical manifestations of the syndrome, including growth and developmental retardation, and craniofacial anomalies with microcephaly, hypertelorism, a broad straight nose, low-set malformed ears, and a wide, tented mouth. She also had the following hitherto undescribed manifestations: ventricular septal defect, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, bilateral partial soft-tissue syndactyly of second and third toes, and megaloureters. The occurrence of the syndrome in a Japanese girl indicates that the syndrome is not restricted to the descendants of individuals from a confined region in northeastern europe.
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2/230. A syndrome of congenital ichthyosis, hypogonadism, small stature, facial dysmorphism, scoliosis and myogenic dystrophy.

    Rud syndrome formerly was considered as a genetically heterogeneous but distinct clinical entity with the manifestations of ichtyosis, hypogonadism, small stature, mental retardation, epilepsy and, infrequently, retinitis pigmentosa. The existence of such a syndrome has recently been dismissed based on a new understanding of the ichthyoses. We report on the clinical history of a 14-year-old boy with congenital ichthyosis, small stature, hypogonadism, facial dysmorphism, nystagmus, kypho-scoliosis and myogenic dystrophy. He was diagnosed as Rud syndrome but developed neither seizures nor mental retardation. However a cousin was mentally retarded. The ichthyosis was familial as five relatives had ichthyosis but no other features of Rud syndrome. The patient had a deletion of the steroid-sulfatase gene. He had neither chondrodysplasia punctata, nor kallmann syndrome, two conditions which are part of the contiguous gene syndrome of the Xp22.3 region. Most case reports previously reported as Rud syndrome can now be reassigned under a contemporary ichthyosis classification that does not include Rud syndrome as a distinct entity. This case was clearly distinct from refsum disease, sjogren-larsson syndrome and any of the other ichthyosis disorders that have been suggested as a replacement for Rud syndrome. Thus the case reported here appears distinct from any previously described, currently recognized syndrome.
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3/230. Achalasia and Down's syndrome: coincidental association or something else?

    Achalasia is an uncommon esophageal motor disorder. It has been associated with other diseases such as Parkinson's disease and depressive disorders, but coincidence of achalasia and Down's syndrome is rare. We report five cases of achalasia in Down's syndrome patients seen in our institution. Two of the five cases were diagnosed at pediatric age. Respiratory symptoms and growth retardation were the main clinical manifestations in pediatric patients, whereas adult patients mainly complained of dysphagia. Taking into account the prevalence rate of both disorders, the association seems higher than that expected by chance. The possible etiopathogenic implications of this association, as well as its clinical relevance, are discussed.
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4/230. Long-term follow up of a new case of hawkinsinuria.

    Hawkinsinuria is a rarely diagnosed autosomal dominantly transmitted inborn error of tyrosine metabolism with impaired conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate to homogentisate. As a consequence of the defective 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxigenase activity, large amounts of the unusual, ninhydrin-positive amino acid hawkinsin and later on in life 4-hydroxycyclohexylacetic acid are formed and excreted. Clinically the disease is characterised mainly by chronic metabolic acidosis and severe growth retardation as a result of protein overload. As the ability to form 4-hydroxycyclohexylacetic acid and thereby to cope with the still not very well defined reactive and toxic intermediates increases, clinical symptoms vanish. We report here a new patient with hawkinsinuria having experienced a series of admissions because of unclear hepatopathy, growth retardation, and renal tubular acidosis. CONCLUSION: Prolonged tyrosyluria in the newborn and young baby should cause the clinical chemist not only to exclude tyrosinaemia, galactosaemia, and fructose intolerance but also to look carefully for hawkinsin in the aminoacid chromatogram.
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5/230. Apparent cyclophosphamide (cytoxan) embryopathy: a distinct phenotype?

    cyclophosphamide (CP) is an alkylating agent widely used in treating cancer and autoimmune disease. CP is classified as a pregnancy risk factor D drug and is teratogenic in animals, but population studies have not conclusively demonstrated teratogenicity in humans. Six isolated reports of prenatally exposed infants with various congenital anomalies exist, but to date no specific phenotype has been delineated. The purpose of this report is to document a new case of in utero CP exposure with multiple congenital anomalies and to establish an apparent CP embryopathy phenotype. The mother had systemic lupus erythematosus and cyclophosphamide exposure in the first trimester. She also took nifedipine, atenolol, clonidine, prednisone, aspirin, and potassium chloride throughout pregnancy. The infant had growth retardation and multiple anomalies including microbrachycephaly, coronal craniosynostosis, hypotelorism, shallow orbits, proptosis, blepharophimosis, small, abnormal ears, unilateral preauricular pit, broad, flat nasal bridge, microstomia, high-arched palate, micrognathia, preaxial upper limb and postaxial lower limb defects consisting of hypoplastic thumbs, and bilateral absence of the 4th and 5th toes. chromosomes were apparently normal. The reported cases of in utero exposure to cyclosposphamide shared the following manifestations with our patient: growth deficiency, developmental delay, craniosynostosis, blepharophimosis, flat nasal bridge, abnormal ears, and distal limb defects including hypoplastic thumbs and oligodactyly. We conclude that (a) cyclophosphamide is a human teratogen, (b) a distinct phenotype exists, and (c) the safety of CP in pregnancy is in serious question.
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6/230. Treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing-hormone analog and attainment of full height potential in a male monozygotic twin with gonadotropin-releasing hormone-dependent precocious puberty.

    We report on a pair of male monozygotic twins, one unaffected and the other affected with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-dependent precocious puberty, and discuss the role of treatment with a GnRH analog in the attainment of full height potential in GnRH-dependent precocious puberty. At 1.6 years of age, the affected twin was studied for tall stature ( 3.8 SD), and was diagnosed as having GnRH-dependent precocious puberty due to a hypothalamic hamartoma of the tuber cinereum. He was treated with oral cyproterone acetate (110-170 mg/m(2) daily) from 1.8 through 5. 0 years of age, with oral cyproterone acetate and intranasal buserelin acetate (700-900 microg/m(2) daily) from 5.0 through 7.5 years, and with intranasal buserelin acetate alone (1100- 1400 microg/m(2) daily) from 7.5 through 12.6 years. He attained a final height of 171.0 cm at 14.9 years of age ( 0.10 SD) and his twin 170. 0 cm at 15.3 years of age (-0.10 SD), with their target height being 174.5 /- 9.0 cm. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that GnRH analog treatment may preserve near full height potential in some patients with GnRH-dependent precocious puberty.
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keywords = nose, nasal
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7/230. Clinical and molecular findings in two patients with russell-silver syndrome and UPD7: comparison with non-UPD7 cases.

    The clinical presentation of prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, triangular face, relative macrocephaly, and body asymmetry is frequently diagnosed as Russell-silver syndrome (RSS). Maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 7 was reported previously in a small subset of individuals with RSS phenotype or primordial growth retardation. The primary purpose of this study was to identify RSS patients with UPD7 and determine whether or not they present phenotypic findings that distinguish them from RSS patients without UPD7. UPD7 testing was performed in 40 patients with unexplained growth retardation, including 21 patients with a diagnosis of RSS. In addition, a subset of patients was screened with markers spanning chromosome 7 to detect potential microdeletions or segmental uniparental disomy. Two of the RSS cases were identified to have maternal UPD7; no cases with deletion or partial UPD were detected. Together with previously published studies, UPD7 was identified in 11/120 (9%) of individuals with classical RSS phenotype. Our patients with UPD7 and those previously published had a classical RSS phenotype and were not clinically distinguishable from other children diagnosed with RSS.
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8/230. Brachmann-de lange syndrome: a cause of early symmetric fetal growth delay.

    Brachmann-de lange syndrome is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth retardation, microbrachycephaly, hirsutism, various visceral and limb anomalies and a typical face. A sonographic prenatal diagnosis at mid-trimester is reported in a case of severe, symmetrical fetal growth delay at 20 weeks gestation, with a thickened skin on the forehead, a small nose and a marked depressed nasal bridge, a long philtrum, micrognathia and a persistently flexed right forearm, with a single bone associated to oligodactyly. Due to the severe mental impairment with a commonly estimated intelligence quotient under 60, the pregnancy was terminated after parental consent.
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keywords = nose, nasal
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9/230. Cryptic subtelomeric translocations in the 22q13 deletion syndrome.

    Cryptic subtelomeric rearrangements are suspected to underlie a substantial portion of terminal chromosomal deletions. We have previously described two children, one with an unbalanced subtelomeric rearrangement resulting in deletion of 22q13-->qter and duplication of 1qter, and a second with an apparently simple 22q13-->qter deletion. We have examined two additional patients with deletions of 22q13-->qter. In one of the new patients presented here, clinical findings were suggestive of the 22q13 deletion syndrome and FISH for 22qter was requested. Chromosome studies suggested an abnormality involving the telomere of one 22q (46,XX,?add(22)(q13. 3)). FISH using Oncor D22S39 and Vysis ARSA probes confirmed a terminal deletion. A multi-telomere FISH assay showed a signal from 19qter on the deleted chromosome 22. Results were confirmed with 19qtel and 22qtel specific probes. The patient is therefore trisomic for 19qter and monosomic for 22qter. The patient's mother was found to have a translocation (19;22)(q13.42;q13.31). We also re-examined chromosomes from two patients previously diagnosed with 22q deletions who were not known to have a rearrangement using the multi-telomere assay. One of these patients was found to have a derivative chromosome 22 (der(22)t(6;22)(p25;q13)). No evidence of rearrangement was detected in the other patient. Thus we have found the 22q13 deletion to be associated with a translocation in three of four patients. This report illustrates the usefulness of examining patients with hypotonia, severe language delay, and mild facial dysmorphism for this syndrome and suggests that most of these deletions may be unbalanced subtelomeric rearrangements.
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10/230. prenatal diagnosis of a fetus with a cryptic translocation 4p;18p and wolf-hirschhorn syndrome (WHS).

    wolf-hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is caused by distal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 and is characterized by growth deficiency, mental retardation, a distinctive, 'greek-helmet' facial appearance, microcephaly, ear lobe anomalies, and sacral dimples. We report a family with a balanced chromosomal translocation 4;18(p15.32;p11.21) in the father and an unbalanced translocation resulting in partial monosomy 4 and partial trisomy 18 in one living boy and a prenatally diagnosed male fetus. Both showed abnormalities consistent with WHS and had in addition aplasia of one umbilical artery. karyotyping of another stillborn fetus revealed a supernumerary derivative chromosome der(18)t(4;18)(p15.32;p11.21) of paternal origin and two normal chromosomes 4. The umbilical cord had three normal vessels. A third stillborn fetus with the same balanced translocation as the father had a single umbilical artery and hygroma colli.
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