Cases reported "Growth Disorders"

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11/98. Wolf-Hirschorn syndrome resulting from partial monosomy 4p/trisomy 9p.

    An infant girl was referred for a genetic consultation because of facial appearance suggestive of Wolf-Hirschorn syndrome (WHS), growth retardation and generalized hypotonia. She had an unbalanced karyotype 46,XX,der(4)t(4;9)(p15.2;p22)mat resulting in the deletion of the critical region for WHS and duplication of the critical region for the 9p duplication syndrome. The mother and the grandmother of proposita were the carriers of an apparently balanced translocation 46,XX,t(4;9)(p15.2;p22). The infant's phenotype was characteristic of WHS syndrome rather than that of duplication 9p phenotype. This is probably the first description of WHS phenotype resulting from a familial 4;9 translocation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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12/98. Distal 5q trisomy resulting from an X;5 translocation detected by chromosome painting.

    We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl with an apparently de novo unbalanced translocation resulting in the presence of additional chromosomal material on the short arm of one x chromosome, which was detected by conventional G-banding studies. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the Chromoprobe Multiprobe-M protocol confirmed that the additional chromosomal material originated from chromosome 5. The karyotype of this patient is now established to be 46,X,der(X) t(X;5)(p22.3;q33), with a deletion of Xp22.3-pter and partial trisomy of 5q33-qter. The distal 5q trisomy genotype has been associated with clinical signs that include growth and mental retardation, eczema, craniofacial anomalies, and malformations of heart, lungs, abdomen, limbs, and genitalia. Our patient also has short stature, a prominent nasal bridge, a flat philtrum, a thin upper lip, dental caries, and limb and cardiac malformations, but she appears to be mildly affected compared with previously reported cases. This is the first case of distal 5q trisomy arising from a translocation with the x chromosome. Replication studies on this patient show that the derivative t(X;5) chromosome is late replicating in almost all cells examined, which indicates that this chromosome is preferentially inactivated. However, the translocated segment of chromosome 5 appears to be early replicating, which implies that the trisomic 5q segment is transcriptionally active. We cannot determine from these studies whether all or only some genes in this segment are expressed, but this patient's relatively mild clinical signs suggest that the critical region(s) that contribute to the distal 5q trisomy phenotype are at least partly suppressed. A review of other patients with X-chromosome translocations indicates that many but not all of them also have attenuated phenotypes. The mechanism of inactivation of autosomal material attached to the x chromosome is complex, with varying effects on the phenotype of the patients that depend on the nature of the autosomal chromatin. Replication studies are of limited utility in predicting expression of autosomal genes involved in X-chromosome translocations.
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ranking = 2.587801813345
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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13/98. phenotype of a patient with pure partial trisomy 2p(p23-->pter).

    We present the case of a 7-month-old girl with the karyotype 46,XX, der(13) t(2;13)(p23;p11.2).ish der(13)(wcp2 ) de novo. Painting confirmed that the additional segment on 13p was of chromosome 2 origin, resulting in trisomy 2p23 -->2pter. The child had a prominent forehead with a flat hemangioma, depressed nasal bridge, protruding tongue, posteriorly angulated ears, esotropia with poor abduction of the right eye, bilateral severe myopia (-5.5 D), retinal hypopigmentation, foveal hypoplasia, and striking left optic nerve hypoplasia. She also had pectus excavatum, a protruding abdomen with diastasis recti, generalized hypotonia, delayed fine and gross motor development, grade II reflux on the left side, and grade III-IV reflux on the right side. An EEG showed epileptiform discharges. Computed tomographic scan of the brain showed decreased white matter, but magnetic resonance imaging showed normal results.
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ranking = 3.6012072533798
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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14/98. Partial trisomy 6p.

    A case of trisomy 6p21 leads to 6pter resulting from a maternal balanced t(2;6)(p25;p21) translocation is reported. The main clinical abnormalities were psychomotor retardation, hypotrophy, blepharophimosis, nystagmus, high nasal bridge, small mouth, sacral dimple, and systolic murmur. Other anomalies might have been due to partial 2p monosomy. Comparison with seven other cases of trisomy 6p allowed the delineation of a clinical entity. Direct proof of the localization of HLA genes was given by the presence of three haplotypes in the index patient.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = trisomy
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15/98. Possible isochromosome 22 leading to trisomy 22.

    We describe the first case of trisomy 22 resulting from a monocentric, possible isochromosome 22. The female infant had multiple anomalies including an abnormal face, ambiguous genitalia, and both ventricular and atrial septal defects. survival was short.
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ranking = 1.25
keywords = trisomy
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16/98. A case of insertional translocation resulting in partial trisomy 16p.

    This report concerns the case of a boy with partial trisomy 16p resulting from the insertional translocation of the short arm of chromosome 16 into the long arm of chromosome 1 in his father. He was referred for genetic testing because of mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly, seizures and multiple dysmorphic features. Chromosome analysis performed in the child demonstrated the presence of additional material in the long arm of chromosome 1. Paternal high resolution chromosome analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridisation revealed the following karyotype: 46,XY,ins(1;16)(q42;p13.1p13.3), while the karyotype of the boy is 46,XY,der(1),ins(1;16)(q42;p13.1p13.3)pat. This is the first reported case of partial trisomy 16p due to paternal insertional translocation.
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ranking = 5.0268108800698
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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17/98. De novo "pure" partial trisomy (6)(p22.1-->pter) in a chromosome 15 with an enlarged satellite, identified by microdissection.

    We report on a newborn boy with a congenital heart defect, severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation, feeding problems, facial anomalies and unilateral hydronephrosis. cytogenetic analysis showed extra chromosomal material on the short arm of one chromosome 15 that at first sight could be mistaken for a chromosomal variant and could not be identified with conventional banding techniques. Chromosome analysis of the parents showed that both had a normal karyotype. microdissection of five copies of the aberrant chromosome 15, amplification of the dissected chromosomal material by DOP-PCR and subsequent reverse painting was performed and disclosed that the patient had a de novo 46,XY,der(15)(6pter-->6p22.1::15p12-->15qter) karyotype with a "pure" trisomy of chromosome region 6p22.1-->6pter. The associated phenotypic anomalies are compared with other reported cases with a distal duplication of chromosome 6p. copyright Wiley-Liss. Inc.
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ranking = 3.6012072533798
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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18/98. Short stature in a mother and daughter caused by familial der(X)t(X;X)(p22.1-3;q26).

    Deletions of the terminal Xp regions, including the short-stature homeobox (SHOX) gene, were described in families with hereditary turner syndrome and Leri-Weill syndrome. We report on a 10-2/12-year-old girl and her 37-year-old mother with short stature and no other phenotypic symptoms. In the daugther, additional chromosome material was detected in the pseudoautosomal region of one x chromosome (46,X,add(Xp.22.3)) by chromosome banding analysis. The elongation of the x chromosome consisted of Giemsa dark and bright bands with a length one-fifth of the size of Xp. The karyotype of the mother demonstrated chromosome mosaicism with three cell lines (46,X,add(X)(p22.3) [89]; 45,X [8]; and 47,X,add(X)(p22.3), add(X)(p22.3) [2]). In both daughter and mother, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), together with data from G banding, identified the breakpoints in Xp22.1-3 and Xq26, resulting in a partial trisomy of the terminal region of Xq (Xq26-qter) and a monosomy of the pseudoautosomal region (Xp22.3) with the SHOX gene and the proximal region Xp22.1-3, including the steroidsulfatase gene (STS) and the kallmann syndrome region. The derivative x chromosome was defined as ish.der(X)t(X;X)(p22.1-3;q26)(yWXD2540-, F20cos-, STS-, 60C10-, 959D10-, 2771 , cos9 ). In daughter and mother, the monosomy of region Xp22.1-3 is compatible with fertility and does not cause any other somatic stigmata of the turner syndrome or Leri-Weill syndrome, except for short stature due to monosomy of the SHOX gene.
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ranking = 0.83780181334496
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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19/98. Phenotypic findings due to trisomy 7p15.3-pter including the TWIST locus.

    We report on a three-month-old boy with a 46,XY,der(Y)t(Y;7)(p11.32;p15.3) karyotype and growth deficiency, postnatal microcephaly with large fontanels, wide sagittal and metopic sutures, hypertelorism, choanal stenosis, micrognathia, bilateral cryptorchidism, hypospadias, abnormal fingers and toes, and severe developmental delay. FISH studies showed partial trisomy 7p resulting from a de novo unbalanced translocation. The application of molecular probes from the TWIST gene region (7p15.3-p21.1) and probes from the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) demonstrated that the 7p15.3-pter fragment was translocated onto Yp with the breakpoint within approximately 20 kb from the Yp telomere. We discuss the possible role of the TWIST gene in abnormal skull development and suggest that trisomy 7p cases with delayed closure of fontanels can be a result of TWIST gene dosage effect.
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ranking = 2.087801813345
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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20/98. Maternal UPD 20 in an infant from a pregnancy with mosaic trisomy 20.

    Maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 20 was found in a 35-month-old girl, the product of a pregnancy complicated by a prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 20. Phenotypic abnormalities included pre- and postnatal growth failure, microcephaly, minor dysmorphic features and psychomotor developmental delay. Chromosomal analysis on cord blood revealed only a normal 46,XX karyotype. Microsatellite analysis of 27 chromosome 20 loci confirmed maternal UPD for all 11 informative markers. Maternal heterodisomy was detected in two and maternal isodisomy in three loci. In the remaining six loci, a non-informative maternal UPD pattern was displayed, as mother and proband are homozygous for the same allele. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of maternal disomy 20 with normal karyotype ascertained by a mosaic trisomy 20 pregnancy.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = trisomy
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