Cases reported "Growth Disorders"

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11/1499. Recombinant human growth hormone and Gitelman's syndrome.

    Gitelman's syndrome is a primary renal tubular disorder with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypocalciuria, and magnesium deficiency. Short stature is one of clinical manifestations in children. The pathogenesis of short stature in Gitelman's syndrome is not known. To evaluate whether growth hormone (GH) is deficient and whether recombinant human GH (rhGH) improves growth rate, rhGH therapy was tried in a child with Gitelman's syndrome. Both height and body weight were less than the third percentile. Laboratory and radiologic findings suggested GH deficiency. During the first 6 months, rhGH therapy with potassium supplement markedly elevated growth rate from 3.8 cm/yr to 12.0 cm/yr. After cessation of rhGH, height increment markedly decreased to the pretreatment level of 3.6 cm/yr during the second 6 months. Additionally, hypomagnesemia was corrected after rhGH therapy. Accordingly, GH deficiency may contribute to short stature in children with Gitelman's syndrome, and rhGH therapy would be an excellent adjunctive treatment for short children with Gitelman's syndrome whose condition is resistant to conventional therapies in terms of growth. ( info)

12/1499. Ophthalmic findings in GAPO syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: The main manifestations of GAPO syndrome are growth retardation (G), alopecia (A), pseudoanodontia (P), and optic atrophy (O). CASES: This syndrome has been described in 21 patients from 16 different families. Four cases are from turkey and have been presented by Sayli and Gul. The purpose of our study is to document the cases from turkey and discuss the ophthalmological and neuro-ophthalmolgical findings of these and other reported GAPO cases. OBSERVATIONS: All patients in the literature and our 4 cases have severe growth retardation with delayed bone age in infancy, characteristic facial appearance (high and bossed forehead, midface hypoplasia), alopecia or severe hypotrichosis, and pseudoanodontia. optic atrophy was present in 1 of our cases and in 5 previous cases. glaucoma was present in 5 cases, including 2 of ours. Buphthalmia and keratopathy secondary to glaucoma were also observed. White eyelashes, seen only in our cases, may be a sign of "early senility." CONCLUSIONS: optic atrophy is not a constant finding in GAPO syndrome. glaucoma may accompany the ocular findings. This syndrome has been attributed to either ectodermal dysplasia or the accumulation of extracellular connective tissue matrix, due to an enzyme deficiency involved in its metabolism. Current studies show that an elastin defect and secondary changes in collagen may be important in the pathogenesis of the disease. ( info)

13/1499. Deletion of 8.5 Mb, including the FMR1 gene, in a male with the fragile x syndrome phenotype and overgrowth.

    A four-year-old boy with severe psychomotor retardation, facial appearance consistent with the fragile x syndrome, hypotonia, and overgrowth was found to have a deletion including the fragile X gene (FMR1). The breakpoints of the deletion were established between CDR1 and sWXD2905 (approximately 200 kb apart) at Xq27.1 (centromeric) and between DXS8318 (612-1078L) and DXS7847 (576-291L) (approximately 250 kb apart) at Xq28, about 500 kb telomeric to the FMR1 gene. The total length of the deletion is approximately 8.5 Mb. The propositus's mother, who was found to be a carrier of the deletion, showed very mild mental impairment. Except for mental retardation, which is a common finding in all cases reported with similar deletions of chromosome Xq, this patient had generalized overgrowth, exceeding the 97th centile for height and weight. obesity and increased growth parameters have been reported in other patients with deletions either overlapping or within a distance of 0.5 Mb from the deletion in the present patient. Thus, it is suggested that a deletion of the 8-Mb fragment centromeric to the FMR1 gene might have an effect on growth. ( info)

14/1499. Two forms of cutis laxa presenting in the newborn period.

    Two infants are described with congenital cutis laxa. They represent two distinct disorders. In the first, congenital cutis laxa is associated with a generalized disorder of elastic tissue in which there may be diaphragmatic or other hernias, diverticula of the gastrointestinal or urinary tract and infantile emphysema. The disease is fatal often within the first year. In the second, congenital cutis laxa is associated with widely patent anterior fontanel, a variety of malformations, and retarded growth and development. Recognition of these distinct syndromes in the newborn period and their recessive inheritance permit realistic discussion of the prognosis which is very different from the benign dominant forms of cutis laxa. ( info)

15/1499. Young-Simpson syndrome: further delineation of a distinct syndrome with congenital hypothyroidism, congenital heart defects, facial dysmorphism, and mental retardation.

    Young-Simpson syndrome is a rare congenital disorder, characterized by congenital hypothyroidism, congenital heart defects, facial dysmorphism, cryptorchidism in males, hypotonia, mental retardation, and postnatal growth retardation. We describe the cases of a 5-year-old boy and a 7-year-old girl with a similar constellation of symptoms and compared them with previously reported patients. ( info)

16/1499. Acrodysplasia, severe ossification abnormalities with short stature, and fibular hypoplasia.

    We present a girl with short stature, growth hormone neurosecretory dysfunction, severe hypoplastic/aplastic changes of the bones of the hands and feet with dysharmonic ossification, severely delayed bone age, microcrania, and fibular hypoplasia. Parental consanguinity suggests autosomal recessive inheritance. An additional three cases [Eiken et al., 1984: Eur J Pediatr 141: 231-235] sharing some of the radiographic manifestations of this patient have been reported. However, distinctive findings in the present case seem to outline a separate entity. ( info)

17/1499. A syndrome of congenital ichthyosis, hypogonadism, small stature, facial dysmorphism, scoliosis and myogenic dystrophy.

    Rud syndrome formerly was considered as a genetically heterogeneous but distinct clinical entity with the manifestations of ichtyosis, hypogonadism, small stature, mental retardation, epilepsy and, infrequently, retinitis pigmentosa. The existence of such a syndrome has recently been dismissed based on a new understanding of the ichthyoses. We report on the clinical history of a 14-year-old boy with congenital ichthyosis, small stature, hypogonadism, facial dysmorphism, nystagmus, kypho-scoliosis and myogenic dystrophy. He was diagnosed as Rud syndrome but developed neither seizures nor mental retardation. However a cousin was mentally retarded. The ichthyosis was familial as five relatives had ichthyosis but no other features of Rud syndrome. The patient had a deletion of the steroid-sulfatase gene. He had neither chondrodysplasia punctata, nor kallmann syndrome, two conditions which are part of the contiguous gene syndrome of the Xp22.3 region. Most case reports previously reported as Rud syndrome can now be reassigned under a contemporary ichthyosis classification that does not include Rud syndrome as a distinct entity. This case was clearly distinct from refsum disease, sjogren-larsson syndrome and any of the other ichthyosis disorders that have been suggested as a replacement for Rud syndrome. Thus the case reported here appears distinct from any previously described, currently recognized syndrome. ( info)

18/1499. Normal expression of the fanconi anemia proteins FAA and FAC and sensitivity to mitomycin C in two patients with Seckel syndrome.

    Seckel syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. The classical presentation includes pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, mental retardation, and characteristic facial appearance. There have been several reports of associated hematological abnormalities and chromosomal breakage, findings suggestive of fanconi anemia (FA). We tested for these findings in two Arabic patients with this syndrome. We compared the growth profile of lymphoblastoid cells from our patients and their parents with the FA group A cell line HSC72 in the presence and absence of mitomycin C (MMC). By Western analysis, we also determined the expression of FAA and FAC, two FA disease gene products that together account for approximately 80% of FA. Unlike HSC72 cells, cells from the patients were resistant to MMC, and both FAA and FAC proteins were expressed at similar levels in all cell lines. There is an increasing recognition of clinical variability and perhaps genetic heterogeneity in Seckel syndrome. Our results demonstrate that cross-link sensitivity comparable to FA is not a uniform finding in patients with Seckel syndrome. ( info)

19/1499. New case of the Richieri-Costa/Guion-Almeida syndrome.

    We describe a boy with multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation (MCA/MR) syndrome. He has growth retardation, microbrachycephaly, coloboma of the iris, and typical facial anomalies including cleft lip/palate. This phenotype overlaps with that described by Richieri-Costa and Guion-Almeida in three Brazilian brothers. The new patient provides further evidence of the existence of this rare clinical entity. ( info)

20/1499. Effects of puberty on bone age maturation in a girl after medulloblastoma therapy.

    BACKGROUND: Craniospinal radiotherapy for malignant brain tumors can result in a variety of neuroendocrine disturbances, among which are the development of growth hormone deficiency and early puberty, which can markedly reduce adult height. methods: The authors report the case of a girl who received craniospinal radiotherapy for a medulloblastoma at the age of 3.4 years. At 9.1 years, growth hormone therapy was started, and spontaneous onset of puberty (Tanner stage B2) occurred at age 10.3 years. Interval until menarche was short, at only 0.9 years. RESULTS: Although chronologic age at appearance of Tanner stages was within the normal range, the patient showed a rapid acceleration in skeletal maturation, resulting in adult short stature. CONCLUSION: Bone age seems to be a more precise parameter for biologic maturation in some patients after craniospinal irradiation than is clinical assessment of pubertal stages. Thus, if progression of bone age and decreasing final height predictions are noted, puberty should be stopped with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, even if pubertal development seems to be adequate for chronologic age, because this increases the remaining time for growth hormone treatment. ( info)
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