Cases reported "HIV Infections"

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1/91. hiv-1 (p24)-positive multinucleated giant cells in HIV-associated lymphoepithelial lesion of the parotid gland. A report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: Cystic benign lymphoepithelial lesion (CBLL) is a well-recognized parotid disorder the diagnosis of which can be made on the basis of clinical findings, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, image studies and fine needle aspiration (FNA). Most aspirations are cystic, and the lesion can be recognized if the triad of foamy macrophages, lymphoid and epithelial (squamous) cells is observed. CASES: The authors recently observed FNA cytologic features of two HIV-associated cases that exhibited numerous multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) but failed to show the epithelial component. A subsequent surgical resection was performed in one patient. Similarly to what has been described for nasopharyngeal (adenoid and tonsil) lymphoid tissue of HIV-positive patients, intense immunoexpression of S-100 and p24 (hiv-1) protein was present in MGC. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of HIV-associated CBLL should always be considered if a parotid cystic lesion presents with numerous MGCs. Immunocytochemical detection of p24 (hiv-1) protein in MGC becomes a very useful diagnostic aid and extends to parotid CBLL many of those pathogenic features of hiv-1 infection already noted in other hiv-1-infected, lymphoid oropharyngeal lesions.
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2/91. Changes in circulating levels of HIV, CD4, and tissue expression of HIV in a patient with recent-onset ulcerative colitis treated by surgery. Case report.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine CD4 T-cell count and circulating and tissue levels of HIV before and after surgery in a patient with recent-onset ulcerative colitis. STUDY DESIGN/methods: CD4 lymphocytes and circulating and tissue HIV rna levels were measured in an HIV-infected patient with ulcerative colitis before and after proctocolectomy. RESULTS: Approximately 3 weeks prior to surgery for ulcerative colitis that was unresponsive to corticosteroids, the patient's CD4 count was 930 cells/mm3 and fell to 313 cells/mm3 within 10 days; the viral burden was approximately 80,000 rna copies/mL. Tissue macrophages and lymphocytes in biopsy and resection specimens were shown to express high levels of HIV rna by in situ hybridization. Five days postoperatively, the patient became asymptomatic and was discharged on tapering prednisone without antiretroviral agents. After surgery, the patient's CD4 count progressively rose, while viral rna levels precipitously dropped. At 3, 6, and 15 weeks postoperatively, CD4 and viral rna counts were 622 cells/mm3 and 31,300 rna copies/mL, 843 cells/mm3 and 11,400 rna copies/mL, and 747 cells/mm3 and 1500 rna copies/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating levels of HIV and CD4 cells, as well as tissue expression of HIV, apparently can be influenced by localized inflammatory processes such as those occurring in inflammatory bowel disease.
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3/91. Coexistent gastric MALT lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma in an HIV positive patient.

    A 47 year old HIV positive male presented with haematemesis and epigastric pain. A gastrectomy was performed for intractable bleeding. The cause of the haematemesis proved to be a Kaposi sarcoma of the stomach which had resulted in mucosal ulceration. Several other smaller foci of Kaposi sarcoma were also present. Coexistent with the Kaposi sarcoma was a dense lymphoid infiltrate with lymphoid follicles and reactive germinal centres. Centrocyte-like cells caused marked effacement and destruction of gastric glands with the formation of lymphoepithelial lesions, typical of a MALT lymphoma. These cells were of B cell lineage and some expressed the HIV antigen, p24. Follicular dendritic cells and macrophages within germinal centres were also p24 positive. immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation did not detect Epstein-Barr virus. Although helicobacter pylori was not identified by light microscopy in the sections sampled, this does not preclude its possible role, with other cofactors such as HIV, in the causation of the MALT lymphoma.
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4/91. True histiocytic lymphoma of the esophagus in an HIV-positive patient: an ultrastructural study.

    A 56-year-old white woman, seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus for 18 months without signs of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, presented with retrosternal pain and progressive dysphagia secondary to an exophytic esophageal mass. Biopsies of the tumor showed a malignant neoplasm composed of pleomorphic, noncohesive cells growing in a diffuse, sheet-like fashion. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were nonreactive with epithelial, lymphoid, neural, and monocyte/macrophage markers. Despite the noncontributory immunohistochemical findings, ultrastructural study of the tumor cells revealed convincing histiocytic features. Individual cells possessed long, slender filopodial projections, prominent golgi apparatus, residual bodies, rare lysosomes, and prelysosomes. Immunoglobulin heavy chain and T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement studies detected no evidence of a clonal gene rearrangement. The patient responded poorly to chemotherapy and died 5 months after her initial symptom of dysphagia.
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5/91. Bacillary angiomatosis by bartonella quintana in an HIV-infected patient.

    Bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis are opportunistic infections caused by bartonella henselae and bartonella quintana, which occur in patients with late-stage infection. We report a case of bacillary angiomatosis in an HIV-infected patient with skin, bone, and probably liver involvement, The identification of the agent (B quintana ) was done by polymerase chain reaction in the skin specimen. The patient had complete regression of all lesions after a 6-month regimen of oral erythromycin.
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6/91. parvovirus B19 infection in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient with anemia.

    anemia is generally attributed to zidovudine therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, although parvovirus B19 infection has been reported as a rare cause. We report on a 24-year-old homosexual man infected with HIV who presented with anemia. He had received aggressive daily antiretroviral therapy (zidovudine 600 mg, lamivudine 300 mg, and saquinavir 1,800 mg) for 2 years. At the time of admission, his CD4 count was 10 x 10(6) cells/L. A bone marrow aspirate smear showed a marked decrease in erythropoiesis and immunocytochemical staining for parvovirus B19 was positive. parvovirus B19 viral dna was detected in the peripheral blood using a polymerase chain reaction-based assay. Serologic studies were positive for parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies, but negative for IgG antibodies. The patient was treated with packed red blood cell transfusion. zidovudine was stopped and replaced with zalcitibine 2.25 mg daily after anemia occurred. He did not receive intravenous Ig therapy because of its cost. After discontinuation of zidovudine for 1 year, anemia persisted and the patient depended on regular blood transfusions to control the anemia. This case emphasizes that, in addition to drug-related causes, parvovirus B19 infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia in HIV-infected individuals.
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7/91. Human herpesvirus type 8 in HIV-infected patients with interstitial pneumonitis.

    OBJECTIVES: The new human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) has been detected in all types of Kaposi's sarcomas, as well as in body-cavity lymphomas and Castleman's disease. Recently, HHV-8 has also been associated with encephalitis in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Interstitial pneumonitis, combined with detection of HHV-8 in non HIV-infected patients, indicates a pathogenetic role of HHV-8 in unexplained lung diseases. We have studied two HIV-infected patients, with otherwise unexplained interstitial pneumonitis for the presence of HHV-8. methods: Lung biopsies of both patients were investigated for HHV-8 sequences. A nested PCR method was used for amplification of HHV-8 dna fragments, and the nature of the amplification products was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. In addition, we used an in situ hybridization technique and immunohistochemical staining for detection of HHV-8 infected cells. RESULTS: Amplification of HHV-8 dna fragments was seen with template dna from lung biopsies of both cases and the appropriate positive controls, but not with negative controls. in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated HHV-8 infected lymphoid cells and alveolar macrophages in both patients as well. CONCLUSIONS: HHV-8 was found in HIV-infected patients with otherwise unexplained interstitial pneumonitis, but the pathogenic role of HHV-8 in patients with interstitial pneumonia remains unclear.
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8/91. High levels of IL-10 and determination of other cytokines and chemokines in HIV-associated haemophagocytic syndrome.

    Haemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) and HIV infection are both associated with cytokine network dysregulation. We therefore analysed plasma levels and mRNA synthesis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of cytokines, chemokines and chemokine receptors in one HIV-infected patient with HPS. We compared the results with those for eight HIV-infected patients with similar CD4 T cell counts (207/mm3 versus controls: median 214/mm3) and plasma virus load (4.1 log copies/ml, versus controls: median 4.2 log copies/ml). The HPS patient had a lower viral dna load in PBMC and higher plasma levels of interferon-gamma, IL-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1beta. No difference in plasma tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6 and MIP-1alpha concentration was observed between the HPS patient and control patients. No difference was observed in TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-10, IL-4, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, RANTES, CXCR-4, and CCR-5 mRNA levels in PBMC, but IL-6 levels were higher in the HPS patient. Our results emphasize the role of IL-10 in the control of immune hyperactivation that is observed in HPS.
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9/91. cardiac tamponade due to post-cardiac injury syndrome in a patient with severe haemophilia A and hiv-1 infection.

    An 18-year-old man with severe haemophilia A (FVIII:C < 1%) and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (hiv-1) infection was admitted to the hospital with fever and chest pain for 7 days. Eight weeks prior to his admission he had an accident for which he underwent, at another hospital, clinical and laboratory examination that revealed bone fractures of the nose cavity, and he was given factor viii concentrates for seven days due to nasal bleeding. On admission, chest roentgenogram showed a large cardiac silhouette and echocardiography confirmed the presence of a large quantity of pericardial fluid. A presumptive diagnosis of the post-cardiac injury syndrome was made and he was given anti-inflammatory drugs plus infusion of recombinant factor viii concentrate (35 units kg-1 b.i.d.). On the seventh day he exhibited cardiac tamponade for which he underwent subxiphoid pericardiotomy with drainage of approximately 1500 mL of bloody exudate. He had an uncomplicated recovery and 10 days later he left hospital. He was given a continuous prophylactic treatment of 15 units kg-1 of recombinant FVIII every 2 days for 6 months, and 30 months after this episode the patient is free of any symptom.
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10/91. Etanercept for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated psoriatic arthritis.

    Etanercept may play an important role in modulating the inflammatory activity and progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. We report the case of a 45-year-old homosexual man with a CD4 cell count of less than 0.05 x 10(9)/L and an HIV viral load of 4200 copies/mL (while receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy) who developed extensive psoriatic plaques, 4.5-kg weight loss, onychodystrophy, and psoriatic arthropathy with severe periarticular bone demineralization. The arthritis progressed despite the use of several disease-modifying medications, including corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, and minocycline. Because of uncontrolled, progressive, and disabling arthritis and resulting profound disability, he was treated with etanercept. Within 3 weeks, his psoriasis had improved dramatically and his joint inflammation had stabilized. For the next 4 months, immunologic and viral parameters remained stable, but his clinical course was complicated by frequent polymicrobial infections. Etanercept was thus discontinued despite continued improvements in his psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and functional status. While both cutaneous and joint manifestations of psoriasis improved dramatically, the experience with this patient dictates that caution and careful follow-up must be exercised when prescribing etanercept in the setting of HIV infection.
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