Cases reported "HTLV-I Infections"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/17. Diagnostic challenges: lymphotropic sero-"questionables".

    During a sero-survey for lymphotropic retroviruses, seven screening tests were performed for the three lymphotropic retroviruses of relevance in djibouti, East africa (hiv-1, hiv-2 and HTLV-1). Of the 82 subjects whose sera reacted in at least one retroviral screening assay, about one third could be followed, and their sera were re-examined after a 5-month interval, and then after an additional 3-month interval. Six selected individuals are reported here, whose retroviral serologies presented important and often unexplained changes over an eight-month period. The six cases summarize prototypic situations and present serological results in a style appropriate to stimulate thought on the significance and interpretation of lymphotropic viral serologies. Each case study is followed by a set of questions that formulate pertinent serological concepts.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = retrovirus
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/17. A case of diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) in a patient positive for HTLV-1.

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB), an important cause of progressive obstructive lung disease in the far east, represents a distinctive sinobronchial syndrome with typical radiologic and histologic features. Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that clinically and experimentally suppresses T-cell function and immune responses. The clinical and immunologic features of DPB in HTLV-1 carriers are unclear, because DPB and HTLV-1 endemic areas around the world are mostly non-overlapping. However, both diseases are endemic in japan. We present a patient with DPB positive for HTLV-1 whose cellular and humoral immune responses were markedly impaired. Six y after diagnosis of DPB, the patient developed respiratory failure and died in spite of treatment with clarithromycin.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.5
keywords = retrovirus
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/17. strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in a carrier of HTLV-I virus with evidence of selective immunosuppression.

    A patient with near fatal Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome is briefly described. Investigation for possible risk factors for this parasitic infection disclosed that he was a carrier of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), but without evidence of disease due to this retrovirus. Over the next few years, the patient's serum antibody levels of IgG to S. stercoralis larvae declined and became undetectable despite continued infection with the parasite. Repeated courses of appropriate treatment cleared the parasitic infection only temporarily. The patient was also found to have undetectable total serum IgE and a negative immediate hypersensitivity skin test to S. stercoralis antigens. Five of six other patients with HTLV-I-associated disease and with or without strongyloidiasis were also found to have very low total serum IgE levels. It is postulated that HTLV-I infection in certain individuals may selectively impair immune responses that are critical in controlling strongyloidiasis.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.5
keywords = retrovirus
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/17. sarcoidosis and HTLV-1 infection.

    An asymptomatic, homosexual, white man was found to have an abnormal chest x ray. A presumptive diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made, but pulmonary function tests and a transbronchial biopsy were normal. He then remained asymptomatic for 10 years until he developed a progressive spastic paraparesis. At this point, antibodies to human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) were identified in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, and the diagnosis of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy was made, the history suggesting sexual exposure to HTLV-1 many years previously. HTLV-1 is associated with a spectrum of immune related disorders, including a pulmonary sarcoid-like syndrome. Infection with this chronic proinflammatory retrovirus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all immune disorders in at risk individuals.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.5
keywords = retrovirus
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/17. Characterization of two human lymphoid cell lines producing human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) isolated from patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy or encephalopathy.

    Two cell lines, CNS-5 and CNS-6, were established by cocultivation of sedimented cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from two anti-human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) antibody-positive male patients with encephalopathy and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, respectively, with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a healthy seronegative female. These cell lines, possessing a normal female karyotype, revealed similar characteristics as follows; they expressed HTLV-I-related antigens, they produced C-type retrovirus particles, HTLV-I provirus genomes were integrated into their DNAs, and they had CD4 activated T-cell markers. In addition, immunocytochemical and immunoelectron microscopic studies showed peculiar immunoreactivity of these cell lines with anti-alpha/beta T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) antibodies; beta Fl, defining beta chain epitope, was only positive in the perinuclear spaces and rough endoplasmic reticulum in some cells, and WT31, recognizing alpha/beta framework, was mostly negative, while CD3 was expressed in the majority of the cells. These facts indicate that HTLV-I-infected cells were present in CSF of these two patients, and suggest that neurological disorders associated with HTLV-I may not be restricted to myelopathy and may include brain abnormalities.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.5
keywords = retrovirus
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/17. Combined antiviral-immunosuppressive treatment in human T-lymphotrophic virus 1-Sjogren-associated myelopathy.

    BACKGROUND: In several studies, antiretroviral drugs (principally zidovudine) have been used with success in the treatment of myelopathy associated with human T-lymphotrophic virus 1 (HTLV-1) (tropical spastic paraparesis-HTLV-1-associated myelopathy). The retrovirus HTLV-1 has been implicated as a causative agent of Sjogren syndrome (SS) in clinical reports and murine experiments. Moreover, a recognized complication of primary SS is a myelopathy, which has been shown in case reports to respond to immunosuppressive treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient with a rapidly progressive, extensive myelopathy with evidence of HTLV-1 infection and SS (probably secondary to HTLV-1) in whom we achieved spectacular therapeutic success using combined immunosuppressive and antiviral therapy. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: University hospital.Patient A young Haitian woman diagnosed with HTLV-1 and SS developed extensive myelopathy leading to severe disability. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical and radiological improvement. RESULTS: Spectacular radiological and clinical recovery as well as stabilization were achieved with combined antiviral and immunosuppressant treatment. Follow-up at 2 years showed no signs of relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Both tropical spastic paraparesis-HTLV-1-associated myelopathy and Sjogren myelopathy are potentially very disabling. Rapidly progressive myelopathy secondary to SS necessitates the introduction of immunosuppressant therapies. The presence of HTLV-1 may confer the necessity to add antiviral therapy.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.5
keywords = retrovirus
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/17. Seroprevalence of antibodies to HTLV-I in patients with ocular disorders.

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) has been shown to spread worldwide and to be responsible for distinct systemic diseases, namely adult T-cell leukaemia and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy. Immune-mediated, inflammatory lesions in the lungs, joints, and lacrimal glands (sjogren's syndrome) are also suggested to be associated with the retrovirus. We studied seroprevalence of antibodies to HTLV-I in patients with various ocular disorders who are residents of south-west japan, one of the endemic areas of HTLV-I. Of 310 patients with ocular disease 72 (23.2%) were seropositive. This seroprevalence did not differ significantly from that of the general population of the area. As regards individual ocular diseases, aetiologically undefined nonspecific uveitis showed a significantly high seropositivity for HTLV-I. Of 44 patients 18 (40.9%) were seropositive. Their clinical features were acute or subacute, transient and sometimes recurrent, and granulomatous changes in the anterior uvea. patients with isolated cotton-wool spot of the retina, non-familial retinitis pigmentosa, or keratoconjunctivitis sicca did not show any significantly high prevalence of HTLV-I infection.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.5
keywords = retrovirus
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/17. Steroid-responsive myeloneuropathy in a man dually infected with hiv-1 and HTLV-I.

    Two human retroviruses, hiv-1 and HTLV-I, have been associated with myelopathies in addition to other neurologic disorders. We report an American dually infected with hiv-1 and HTLV-I who developed steroid-responsive myeloneuropathy. This 28-year-old bisexual man developed interstitial pneumonitis and a transient midthoracic sensory level followed by the evolution of a slowly progressive spastic paraparesis and sensorimotor neuropathy. Serologic studies demonstrated coinfection with both hiv-1 and HTLV-I. Peripheral blood absolute CD4 count was persistently within the normal range. Cranial MRI was normal and spinal MRI showed T3-T10 atrophy. Serial CSF analyses demonstrated marked intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-I IgG, lymphocytic pleocytosis, elevated protein and immunoglobulin g, and oligoclonal bands. hiv-1 was isolated from CSF but not from peripheral nerve. Lymphoproliferative studies confirmed spontaneous proliferation in both blood and CSF. Soluble interleukin 2 receptor and soluble CD8 were greatly elevated in blood and CSF when compared with patients with HIV-related vacuolar myelopathy and seronegative patients with other causes of myelopathy. Nerve biopsy showed epi- and endoneurial CD8 lymphocytic infiltration without vasculitis; muscle biopsy showed features of acute and chronic denervation. A 6-week course of prednisone produced sustained improvement in leg strength and walking times. We speculate that the myeloneuropathy was caused by HTLV-I in the setting of coinfection with hiv-1.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.5
keywords = retrovirus
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/17. Transmission of retroviruses by transfusion of screened blood in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    We determined the rates of seroconversion to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) and human T-cell leukemia virus Type I (HTLV-I) in a cohort of patients receiving transfusions of blood components screened for antibody to hiv-1. Preoperative and postoperative serum samples were collected from 4163 adults undergoing cardiac surgery who received 36,282 transfusions of blood components. The postoperative samples from all patients were tested for serologic evidence of hiv-1 infection, and those that were positive were compared with the corresponding preoperative samples. One case of hiv-1 transmission by transfusion of screened blood components was identified; two preexisting hiv-1 infections were found. Samples from 2749 patients were tested similarly for serologic evidence of HTLV-I infection; these patients received 20,963 units of blood components. Five new cases and two preexisting cases of HTLV-I infection were detected. The observed risk of hiv-1 transmission by transfusion was 0.003 percent per unit; the risk of HTLV-I transmission was 0.024 percent per unit. We conclude that there is a very small risk of HTLV-I infection from transfused blood products that have been screened for antibodies to hiv-1, but that it is nearly 10-fold higher than the risk of hiv-1 infection.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = retrovirus
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/17. Sequence comparisons of HTLV-I from HAM/TSP patients and their asymptomatic spouses.

    We amplified and sequenced portions of the human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) (U3), pol, env, and pX provirus regions (1212 bp per person) from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of two married couples (case 1 and case 2). Both husbands are patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and the wives are asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. We selected these regions because the LTR and env regions of murine retrovirus models have been involved in determining tissue tropism. In addition, the predominant immunogenic epitope for HTLV-I-specific cytotoxic T cells obtained from circulating PBL of HAM/TSP patients was localized in the HTLV-I pX region. Our aim was to examine variations in these HTLV-I regions between affected and asymptomatic spouses. In the HTLV-I regions studied, we detected no sequence variation between each couple. These data do not favor the hypothesis that neurotropic mutants of HTLV-I are involved in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.5
keywords = retrovirus
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'HTLV-I Infections'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.