Cases reported "Hallucinations"

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1/268. The coincidence of schizophrenia and Parkinsonism: some neurochemical implications.

    The hypothesis has recently been advanced that increased activity of central dopaminergic mechanisms underlies the symptomatology of the schizophrenias. The evidence that dopaminergic transmission in the corpus striatum is impaired in Parkinson's disease suggests that observations on the relationship between Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia may illuminate the patholophysiology of the latter disease. Four cases are reported in which an illness with schizophrenic features developed in the setting of longstanding Parkinson's disease; attention is drawn to earlier reports of schizophrenic illnesses occurring as postencephalitic sequelae in the presence of a parkinsonian syndrome. These observations appear to conflict with the view that increased dopamine release in the striatum is necessary for the expression of schizophrenic psychopathology, but do not exclude the possibility that increased transmission may occur at other dopaminergic sites in the brain, for example the nucleus accumbens, tuberculum olfactorium or cerebral cortex. Similarly the dopamine receptor blockade hypothesis of the therapeutic effects of neuroleptic drugs cannot be maintained with respect to an action in the striatum in view of the differences between the actions of thioridazine and chlorpromazine in this structure, but may be tenable for actions at extra-straital sites.
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keywords = cortex
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2/268. Unidirectional olfactory hallucination associated with ipsilateral unruptured intracranial aneurysm.

    PURPOSE: We describe a patient with complex partial seizure with unidirectional olfactory aura associated with ipsilateral unruptured aneurysm. methods AND RESULTS: The patient felt a sweet pleasant smell coming from behind her right side every time before the attack. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) angiography revealed a large aneurysm at the bifurcation of the right middle cerebral artery and compression of the right orbitofrontal cortex. Small spikes were recorded from the right orbitofrontal and superior temporal gyri and from the uncus by the cortical electrodes during clipping of the aneurysm. CONCLUSIONS: The orbitofrontal cortex may have a function related to the ipsilateral directional olfactory sensation.
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keywords = cortex
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3/268. A puzzling case of seizures and visual hallucinations during clomipramine treatment with a high dose but causing a low serum concentration.

    We present a puzzling case of a 25-year-old depressive man suffering from seizures and visual hallucinations during clomipramine treatment with a high dose but causing a low serum concentration. We examined alleles of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes. It was revealed that he was not an ultrarapid metabolizer for CYP2D6, and that the genotypes were homozygous for CYP2D6J and heterozygous for CYP2C19m1. Throughout the treatment period, his compliance was good. Since he was a smoker, it seems likely that his low clomipramine level was due to smoking-induced CYP1A2 activity. These findings suggest that smoking-induced CYP1A2 activity overcomes the possibly inhibiting effects of homozygosity for CYP2D6J and heterozygosity for CYP2C19m1, and that high-dose clomipramine is not always a direct cause of seizures.
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ranking = 22.262236659385
keywords = visual
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4/268. transcranial magnetic stimulation of left temporoparietal cortex in three patients reporting hallucinated "voices".

    BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest that auditory hallucinations of "voices" arise from activation of speech perception areas of the cerebral cortex. Low frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can reduce cortical activation. methods: We have studied three schizophrenic patients reporting persistent auditory hallucinations to determine if low frequency TMS could curtail these experiences. One hertz stimulation of left temporoparietal cortex was compared with sham stimulation using a double-blind, cross-over design. RESULTS: All three patients demonstrated greater improvement in hallucination severity following active stimulation compared to sham stimulation. Two of the three patients reported near total cessation of hallucinations for > or = 2 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: TMS may advance our understanding of the mechanism and treatment of auditory hallucinations.
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ranking = 6
keywords = cortex
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5/268. When the left brain is not right the right brain may be left: report of personal experience of occipital hemianopia.

    OBJECTIVES: To make a personal report of a hemianopia due to an occipital infarct, sustained by a professor of neurology. methods: Verbatim observation of neurological phenomena recorded during the acute illness. RESULTS: Hemianopia, visual hallucinations, and non-occipital deficits without extraoccipital lesions on MRI, are described and discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Hemianopia, due to an occipital infarct, without alexia, is not a disability which precludes a normal professional career. Neurorehabilitation has not been necessary.
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ranking = 4.4524473318769
keywords = visual
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6/268. schizophrenia - A disturbance of signal interaction between the entorhinal cortex and the dentate gyrus? The contribution of experimental dibenamine psychosis to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia: A hypothesis.

    In addition to the existence of complex memory (similar to the implicit nondeclarative memory of Squire), the existence of a phylogenetically old apparatus of a memory of situations (SMA) is supposed, which is to some extent comparable with the declarative memory of Squire. During actual sensory information the SMA generates a general frame and forms a general 'mark', indicating whether a given information has its origin inside or outside the body, and whether it is new or known. The procedure of this marking process can be explained as the time-depending arrest of a copy of the actual original information-transporting signal 'shower'; this copy must last until the feedback from thalamocortical centers indicates the termination of the processing of the original signal showers. The arrest of the shower copies is the performance of neuronal networks of the entorhinal cortex (EC) and the gyrus dentatus (GD). The psychopathological and biochemical analyses of experimental dibenamine psychosis show a different effect of dibenamine on the noradrenaline (NA) receptors of the EC and GD, respectively: these effects are responsible for the repeated perception cycles of a single situation. N,N-Dibencylamine blocks the postsynaptic alpha(1)-receptors of the EC without influencing the beta-receptors of the GD. Thus the interaction between EC and GD is changed: instead of new scenes, perceptions that have just been experienced get repeated presence and the quality of familiarity. The prolonged arrest of shower copies simultaneously blocks the entrance of new signal showers from the EC to the GD. No information-transporting signal showers can come in as long as the arrest lasts. In case of a disturbance in NA-dependent actions within the EC and the GD, the duration of arrest of information-transporting signal showers is shortened. Thus the formal frame of experience receives the quality of novelty instead of familiarity, and in addition the qualities of uncertainty, vagueness, and alienity. These very changes in perception and experience represent the basic disturbance of schizophrenia. All the symptoms of schizophrenia may be explained by this basic disturbance. The analysis of biochemical aspects turns attention to the energetic situation of NA and N-methyl-D-aspartate systems. These considerations suggest a genetic background of the basic disturbance of schizophrenia: transmitter effects on membranes of neurons and possibly also on glial cells, and energy supply of these effects may be predetermined genetically. It may be assumed that the compensation of such membrane-dependent disturbances will be possible within wide areas of the neural network, except for the 'bottleneck' of the overlapping region of the iso- and allocortex.
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ranking = 6
keywords = cortex
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7/268. cisapride in the treatment of visual hallucinations caused by vision loss: the Charles Bonnet syndrome.

    The authors describe the use of cisapride (Propulsid), a potent 5-HT(3) antagonist, in the treatment of visual hallucinations in two patients with vision loss (the Charles Bonnet syndrome).
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ranking = 22.262236659385
keywords = visual
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8/268. Evidence for functional abnormality in the right auditory cortex during musical hallucinations.

    Right auditory cortex dysfunction during musical hallucinations occurred in an 88-year-old woman, who was otherwise cognitively intact. We assessed this phenomenon with a combination of neuromagnetic and cerebral blood-flow measurements.
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ranking = 5
keywords = cortex
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9/268. Peduncular hallucinosis: an unusual sequel to surgical intervention in the suprasellar region.

    Peduncular hallucinations are formed visual images often associated with sleep disturbance, and are caused by lesions in the midbrain, pons and diencephalon. In the present study, we report two patients who developed peduncular hallucinations following surgery in the suprasellar region. In one of these, the peduncular hallucinations were a sequel to endoscopic third ventriculostomy, while in the other, they were due to diencephalon and mid-brain compression by a postoperative clot following excision of a hypothalamic astrocytoma.
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ranking = 4.4524473318769
keywords = visual
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10/268. cluster headache with aura.

    cluster headache with aura is rare. The authors retrospectively reviewed 101 cluster headache patient charts at the Jefferson Headache Center. Six patients had an associated aura, five visual and one olfactory, lasting 5 to 120 minutes. Only one had migraine (without aura). Auras always occurred with or were followed by a severe cluster headache. Two patients were related.
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ranking = 4.4524473318769
keywords = visual
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