Cases reported "Hallux Valgus"

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1/7. Acrogeria (Gottron type): a vascular disorder?

    We report a 27-year-old Japanese man with the peculiar clinical features of acrogeria. He had had perniosis since early childhood. Prominent atrophic skin changes over the hands, hallux valgus, shortened distal phalanges and atrophic scars on his auricles were noted. X-ray of the hands revealed acro-osteolytic changes of the distal phalanges, and arteriography demonstrated multiple occluded branches of the digital arteries. There were no histological changes of systemic sclerosis in his forearm skin, nor antinuclear antibodies or coagulation disorders. Western immunoblotting demonstrated decreased production of type III collagen by dermal fibroblasts both from an affected finger and from the unaffected upper arm. Although the pathogenesis of acrogeria is unknown, the present case suggests that peripheral circulatory disturbance, as well as a congenital abnormality in type III collagen synthesis, may partly account for the pathogenesis of Gottron-type acrogeria.
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2/7. Stress fractures of the lesser metatarsals after a Wilson osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity.

    This article describes a patient with lesser-metatarsal stress fractures resulting from an oblique Wilson displacement first metatarsal osteotomy. The shortening of the first metatarsal forces the lesser metatarsals to bear the weight previously borne by the first ray and increases the compression stress on the adjacent metatarsal heads. The proximal displacement of the osteotomy must be minimized in order to limit the risk of stress fracture of the lesser metatarsals.
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3/7. Complete duplication of an accessory first ray.

    A case report of an accessory metatarsal located between the first and second metatarsals is presented. This rudimentary accessory ray caused a splay foot deformity that made it difficult for the patient to walk comfortably in shoes. In reviewing the literature, there has been very little reported on the complete duplication of a metatarsal, as described by Venn-Watson. The authors will discuss the proper treatment of, and review the classifications associated with, this deformity.
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4/7. Preoperative criteria for hallux valgus surgery and use of convergent angled base wedge osteotomy.

    A discussion is presented about objective correction criteria for hallux abducto valgus surgery. A historical review of commonly used procedures performed for correction at various levels of first ray deformity is related. Based on ideal criteria for base wedge osteotomies, a new template and procedure for base wedge osteotomies derived from computer-augmented graphics is described in detail. This procedure has been referred to as a convergent angled osteotomy (CAO) and effectively reduces the metatarsus primus adductus angle with minimal loss of length, cortex to cortex apposition in closure, relative lengthening with plantarflexion if desired, and a capacity for very stable rigid internal fixation that optimizes recovery from base wedge reduction. Case histories are also presented.
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5/7. hallux valgus and hallux flexus associated with cerebral palsy: analysis and treatment.

    hallux valgus and hallux flexus associated with cerebral palsy foot deformity may be due to equinovalgus and/or metatarsus primus adductus or combinations of these. Occasionally the condition occurs in equinovarus feet. Hallux flexus or "dorsal bunion" is usually due to a weak extensor hallucis longus, overpull of the anterior tibial muscle on the first metatarsal and spasticity or contracture of the flexor hallucis longus or brevis. A weak peroneus longus muscle has not caused this deformity. The condition is usually predictable in the growing child if all factors related to gait, collagen stability and foot alignment are observed. Treatment includes soft-tissue and bone realignment. Release of the adductor hallucis, lateral collateral ligaments of the metatarsophalangeal joint, plication of the medial capsule and of the abductor hallucis and centralization of the extensor hallucis longus will realign the first ray. The flexor hallucis longus is transferred to athe extensor hallucis longus proximal to the metatarsophalangeal joint and the anterior tibial tendon is transferred to the second metatarsal. An osteotomy at the base of the first metatarsal and at the base of the proximal phalanx will realign the skeleton. Twenty-six great toes in 16 patients have been observed for two to 20 years. The correction has been maintained without arthrodesis of the metatarsophalangeal joint except where chondromalacia occurred. Once the pattern of deformity is evident, progression is unrelenting and treatment is indicated in order to prevent chondromalacia of the articular cartilage.
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6/7. Anatomic variations in the first ray: Part I. Anatomic aspects related to bunion surgery.

    dissection and roentgenographic findings in 35 nonoperative cadaveric and freshly amputated feet were correlated with disorders of the first day--specifically the sesamoids. There are four noteworthy factors associated with first ray pathology. The most significant are axial rotation of the first metatarsal bone and degenerative changes at the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Significant anatomic variations can be correlated with failed bunion surgery.
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7/7. The misuse of the Lapidus procedure: re-evaluation of the preoperative criteria.

    Fusion of the metatarsocuneiform joint has been documented in the literature for a number of conditions affecting the first ray. The fixation techniques have advanced greatly since Lapidus advocated the procedure, but the indications need to remain rigid and narrow. The review of the literature illustrates numerous complications, and this case presentation specifically depicts the long convalescence of the failed fusion of the first metatarsocuneiform joint. The Lapidus procedure ultimately should be used as a last resort to eliminate painful arthrosis from the metatarsocuneiform joint, reduce severe deformity, or give medial column stability to a paralytic or a spastic foot. If no pathology exists within the metatarsocuneiform joint, then surgeons should use other procedures to correct pathology of the first ray in elective foot surgery.
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