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1/22. Accentuated viral exanthems in areas of inflammation.

    Types of lesions and patterns of distribution aid in the recognition of viral exanthems. Varicella and hand-foot-and-mouth disease can appear atypically in areas of inflammation. We describe 5 cases of morphologically altered exanthems that localized early and preferentially to areas of inflammation. ( info)

2/22. Hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease, also known as vesicular stomatitis with exanthem, is a vesicular disorder affecting both skin and oral mucosa. The disease is usually caused by Coxsackie virus A-16 and affects mainly children. The oral lesions may require differential diagnosis from other conditions, such as herpetic gingivostomatitis, aphthous stomatitis, and herpangina. Hand, foot, and mouth disease should not be confused with foot-and-mouth disease of cattle, which is rare in human beings and is not caused by Coxsackie virus. ( info)

3/22. MRI of enterovirus 71 myelitis with monoplegia.

    We report two boys diagnosed as having herpangina and hand-foot-mouth disease complicated by monoplegia during the outbreak enterovirus infection in taiwan in 1998. enterovirus 71 was identified in the stool and throat swab; neither polio nor Coxsackie viruses was identified. MRI showed unilateral lesions in the anterior horns of the spinal cord at T11-12 and C2-5. Although the MRI findings and sites of these lesions were similar to those of poliovirus-associated poliomyelitis, the virological data indicated that these boys were infected with enterovirus type 71. ( info)

4/22. Nail matrix arrest following hand-foot-mouth disease: a report of five children.

    Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious enteroviral infection occurring primarily in children and characterized by a vesicular palmoplantar eruption and erosive stomatitis. Nail matrix arrest has been associated with a variety of drug exposures and systemic illnesses, including infections, and may result in a variety of changes, including transverse ridging (Beau's lines) and nail shedding (onychomadesis). The association of HFMD with Beau's lines and onychomadesis has not been reported previously. Five children, ages 22 months-4 years, presented with Beau's lines and/or onychomadesis following physician-diagnosed HFMD by 3-8 weeks. Three of the five patients experienced fever with HFMD, and none had a history of nail trauma, periungual dermatitis, periungual vesicular lesions, or a significant medication intake history. All patients experienced HFMD within 4 weeks of one another, and all resided in the suburbs of the chicago metropolitan area. In all patients the nail changes were temporary with spontaneous normal regrowth. The mechanism of the nail matrix arrest is unclear, but the timing and geographic clustering of the patients suggests an epidemic caused by the same viral strain. ( info)

5/22. Monofocal outer retinitis associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus.

    PURPOSE: To report symptoms and signs from an otherwise healthy man with photopsia and monofocal outer retinitis occurring 3 days after the onset of hand, foot, and mouth disease. METHOD: Case report. RESULTS: Ophthalmic examination revealed a single circumscribed area of pigment epithelial mottling in the left eye and a corresponding nonarcuate absolute scotoma. fluorescein angiography demonstrated attenuation of the retinal pigment epithelium. serologic tests at 1 month after the onset disclosed serum antibody to enterovirus. CONCLUSION: The close association between the cutaneous eruption and the onset of visual symptoms suggests that the retinal lesion was caused by coxsackievirus infection. ( info)

6/22. guillain-barre syndrome following hand-foot-and-mouth disease.

    We describe a patient who developed guillain-barre syndrome (GBS) following hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) which is known to be caused by enterovirus infection. A 35-year-old man developed acute paraparesis and dysesthesia in the four limbs following typical skin eruption of HFMD. Electrophysiologic studies showed peripheral nerve demyelination predominant in the distal terminals. HFMD is a rare cause of meningitis, encephalitis, and polio-like myelitis, but GBS following HFMD has never been described. ( info)

7/22. Deaths of children during an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in sarawak, malaysia: clinical and pathological characteristics of the disease. For the Outbreak Study Group.

    From April through June 1997, 29 previously healthy children aged <6 years (median, 1.5 years) in Sarawak, malaysia, died of rapidly progressive cardiorespiratory failure during an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused primarily by enterovirus 71 (EV71). The case children were hospitalized after a short illness (median duration, 2 days) that usually included fever (in 100% of case children), oral ulcers (66%), and extremity rashes (62%). The illness rapidly progressed to include seizures (28%), flaccid limb weakness (17%), or cardiopulmonary symptoms (of 24 children, 17 had chest radiographs showing pulmonary edema, and 24 had echocardiograms showing left ventricular dysfunction), resulting in cardiopulmonary arrest soon after hospitalization (median time, 9 h). Cardiac tissue from 10 patients showed normal myocardium, but central nervous system tissue from 5 patients showed inflammatory changes. Brain-stem specimens from 2 patients were available, and both specimens showed extensive neuronal degeneration, inflammation, and necrosis, suggesting that a central nervous system infection was responsible for the disease, with the cardiopulmonary dysfunction being neurogenic in origin. EV71 and possibly an adenovirus, other enteroviruses, or unknown cofactors are likely responsible for this rapidly fatal disease. ( info)

8/22. Acute encephalomyelitis during an outbreak of enterovirus type 71 infection in taiwan: report of an autopsy case with pathologic, immunofluorescence, and molecular studies.

    We report a fatal case of enterovirus type 71 (EV 71) infection in an 8-year-old girl during a summer outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in 1998 in taiwan. The clinical course was rapidly progressive, with manifestations of hand, foot, and mouth disease, aseptic meningitis, encephalomyelitis, and pulmonary edema. The patient died 24 hours after admission. Postmortem study revealed extensive inflammation in the meninges and central nervous system and marked pulmonary edema with focal hemorrhage. brain stem and spinal cord were most severely involved. The inflammatory infiltrates consisted largely of neutrophils involving primarily the gray matter with perivascular lymphocytic cuffing, and neuronophagia. The lungs and heart showed no evidence of inflammation. EV 71 was isolated from the fresh brain tissues and identified by immunofluorescence method with type-specific EV 71 monoclonal antibody. It was also confirmed by neutralization test and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with sequence analysis. The present case was the first example in which EV 71 was demonstrated to be the causative agent of fatal encephalomyelitis during its epidemic in taiwan. ( info)

9/22. Echovirus 7 associated encephalomyelitis.

    BACKGROUND: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is endemic in malaysia. In 1997, a large outbreak of enterovirus 71 (EV-71) associated HFMD resulted in 41 deaths due to severe left ventricular dysfunction and central nervous system infection with extensive damage to the medulla and pons. The clinical presentation in all these patients were rapid cardio-respiratory decompensation leading to cardiac arrest. Another large outbreak of HFMD with 55 fatal cases and a similar clinical picture was reported in taiwan in 1998. In 2000, an outbreak of HFMD resulted in the deaths of three children who had rapid cardio-respiratory decompensation and one child who survived a central nervous system infection. OBJECTIVES: We set out to study the etiologic agent and mechanism involved in three children who presented to our hospital, two of whom died and one survived a central nervous system infection. STUDY DESIGN: The clinical course of the disease was described. Throat, rectal swab and cerebrospinal fluid samples were subjected to viral isolation and viral isolates were identified by immunofluorescence, micro-neutralisation using human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells, and reverse transcritpase polymerase chain reaction. magnetic resonance imaging was performed on two of the patients. RESULTS: Echovirus 7 was the sole pathogen isolated from three cases of acute encephalomyelitis, two of which were fatal due to severe left ventricular dysfunction resistant to inotropic support. The survivor had residual bulbar palsy, but is considered to have had a good neurological outcome. CONCLUSION: Echovirus 7 infection associated with encephalomyelitis could be fatal due to indirect involvement of the heart resulting in severe left ventricular dysfunction. In addition one of the children presented with hand, foot, and mouth disease, a syndrome that has not been previously associated with echovirus 7 infection. ( info)

10/22. Nail matrix arrest in the course of hand, foot and mouth disease.

    Onychomadesis describes complete nail shedding from the proximal portion; it is consecutive to a nail matrix arrest and can affect both fingernails and toenails. It is a rare disorder in children. Except for serious generalised diseases or inherited forms, most cases are considered to be idiopathic. Few reports in literature concern common triggering phenomena. We present four patients in whom the same benign viral condition in childhood appeared as a stressful event preceding onychomadesis. In each case, spontaneous complete healing of the nails was achieved within a few weeks. CONCLUSION: Onychomadesis and/or onycholysis is a newly recognised complication in the course of viral infections presenting clinically as hand, foot and mouth disease, and because of mild forms, is probably underestimated. ( info)
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