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1/22. Ontogeny of clenched-hand development in trisomy 18 fetuses: A serial transabdominal fetoscopic observation.

    Malpositioning of the fingers is a characteristic anomaly in fetuses with trisomy 18. The defect results in part from muscle variations along the radial margin of forearm and hand, absence of the thenar muscles, anomalous tendons and attachments among the forearm groups, and fusions among the arm flexor group. These variations result in radial or ulnar displacement of the tendons of extensor digitorum and digiti minimi, with overlapping of the fourth and fifth fingers radially and second finger in an ulnar direction. The ontogeny of these changes is unknown. We performed serial transabdominal thin-gauge fetoscopy in a patient with increased nuchal thickening at 12 weeks of pregnancy at the time of genetic testing and again at 14 weeks at the time of termination of pregnancy. Changes in the positioning of the fingers were not apparent at 12 weeks, but were evident at 14 weeks. The findings were beyond the resolution of ultrasound. We conclude that malpositioning of the fingers in trisomy 18 occurs some time between 12 and 14 weeks of gestation. Noninvasive confirmation of these findings may be possible with new and improved ultrasound imaging capabilities or perhaps with three-dimensional ultrasound.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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2/22. Case of partial trisomy 9p and partial trisomy 14q resulting from a maternal translocation: overlapping manifestations of characteristic phenotypes.

    We report on a female infant with partial trisomy 9p (pter-->p13) and partial trisomy 14q (pter-->q22) resulting from a 3:1 segregation of a maternal reciprocal translocation (9;14)(p13;q22). Both trisomy 9p and partial trisomy 14q have been described as recognized phenotypes with characteristic patterns of anomalies. This patient appears to be the first reported with a partial duplication of both 9p and 14q resulting in an overlapping phenotype including minor facial anomalies, cleft palate, and hand-foot anomalies. However, the facial findings were more pronounced than commonly observed in cases with only one or the other duplicated chromosome regions, resulting in a distinctive appearance.
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ranking = 14.179095108321
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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3/22. Case of partial trisomy 2q3 with clinical manifestations of Marshall-Smith syndrome.

    We describe a girl with physical anomalies, accelerated skeletal maturation, failure to thrive, and respiratory difficulties consistent with a diagnosis of Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS). Chromosome analysis showed an inverted duplication of chromosome 2 [46,XX,inv dup(2)(q37q32) de novo] identified by G banding and confirmed by FISH. Several cases of trisomy 2q3 have been reported and established a syndrome, but the present case is the first to be associated with accelerated skeletal maturation and a clinical picture resembling MSS. This raises the possibility that the cause of MSS involves the q3 region of chromosome 2. Few reports of MSS include study of the karyotype, although the chromosomes were apparently normal in those cases where they have been examined. We suggest that karyotyping be undertaken with particular attention to the 2q3 region in patients with suspected MSS. It also would be prudent to assess bone age in all children with trisomy 2q.
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ranking = 5.4287618575712
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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4/22. prenatal diagnosis of partial trisomy 4q26-qter and monosomy for the Wolf-Hirschhorn critical region in a fetus with split hand malformation.

    We describe the results of prenatal analyses and postnatal findings in a male fetus with a partial trisomy for the long arm and a small terminal monosomy for the short arm of chromosome 4 with the following karyotype: 46,XY,add(4)(p16.3).ish dup(4)(q26qter)(wcp4 , D4S2336x3,AFMb280xa5x2,4ptel-,WHCR-). G-banding did not identify the origin of the additional chromosomal segment, but this was achieved prenatally by application of RxFISH and whole chromosome painting probes. Subsequent FISH analysis with region-specific YAC clones was used to relate the phenotypic findings such as bilateral split hand formation, specific cardiac and kidney anomalies, microtia, and hypoplastic thorax more exactly to the partial trisomy of the segment 4q26-qter.
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ranking = 7.6431427863569
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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5/22. trisomy 4p in a family with A t(4;15).

    This report concerns a trisomy 4p in a mentally retarded girl with multiple congenital anomalies. A translocation between chromsomes Nos. 4 and 15 was discovered in three generations of the patient's pedigree.
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ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = trisomy
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6/22. De novo interstitial direct duplication 1(q23.1q31.1) in a fetus with Pierre Robin sequence and camptodactyly.

    Interstitial duplications of chromosomal region 1q are rarely seen. We report the first prenatal diagnosis of pure partial trisomy 1q. The fetus was karyotyped for polyhydramnios, micrognathia, and flexion of fingers of both hands. Conventional and molecular cytogenetics showed a de novo direct duplication of the chromosomal region 1q23.1q31.1 leading to a partial trisomy 1q. At autopsy, the fetus showed Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) and camptodactyly. The main histological finding was a decreased number of motoneurons with apoptotic features in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. A literature review and our observations suggest that genetic material mapping to chromosome 1q25 could be responsible for PRS with distal arthrogryposis when this is in triple dose.
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ranking = 2.547714262119
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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7/22. Terminal tandem duplication of 16p: a case with "pure" partial trisomy (16)(pter-->p13).

    A new-born infant was found to have multiple congenital anomalies Including bilateral cleft of lip and palate, club-hands and feet, and heart defects. High resolution chromosome analysis showed a de novo tandem duplication of the terminal part of the short arm of chromosome 16, resulting in a dup(16)(pter-->p13). Fluorescent in situ hybridization with a chromosome 16-specific paint confirmed that the extra material belonged to chromosome 16.
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ranking = 5.0954285242379
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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8/22. prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomy 6 mosaicism and phenotype of the affected newborn.

    The first case of a fetal trisomy 6 mosaicism proven at 25 weeks of gestation by analysis of fetal urine cells is described. Chromosomal analysis was indicated by an ultrasonographically diagnosed heart defect at 21 weeks of gestation. The chromosomal aberration was detected in amniotic fluid cells while fetal blood cells showed a normal chromosome set. At term a boy with normal growth parameter was born. In addition to the expected heart defect, malformations of hands and feet were present.
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ranking = 0.83333333333333
keywords = trisomy
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9/22. Triply discordant triplets: probability, management options, and risks.

    The spontaneous occurrence of triplets is rare. With increased utilization of "assisted reproductive technologies," multifetal gestations have become more common. The empiric fetal risk for major malformation is approximately 3%. In a triplet pregnancy each fetus independently carries this risk so that the probability of having at least one malformed fetus is approximately 9%. It is much less likely to have 2 or 3 simultaneously but discordantly malformed fetuses in a multizygotic triplet gestation (.09% and .0027% risk, respectively). We report on the first case, to our knowledge, of an ovulation-stimulated triplet pregnancy complicated by 3-way discordance for major malformations diagnosed in the late second trimester by ultrasound. fetus A was affected by congenital diaphragmatic hernia and trisomy 21; fetus B had encephalocele, a midline facial defect, and a cleft palate; and fetus C had evidence of unilateral claw hand but an otherwise normal fetal survey. At 19 weeks of gestation, fetus A was found to have spontaneously died, and a selective termination of triplet B was performed. We conclude: (1) the finding of a single major malformation in one fetus should lead to extensive search for malformations in all members of the pregnancy, and (2) the simultaneous occurrence of major malformations in more than one member of a multifetal gestation is a circumstance under which multiple selective termination deserves consideration. In this article we discuss important issues and caveats in the performance of selective termination for abnormal members of multifetal gestations.
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ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = trisomy
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10/22. tetrasomy 9q in an infant with cleft palate and multiple anomalies.

    We report a patient with partial tetrasomy 9q resulting from a de novo triplication of 9q13q22.1. The clinical features, including microcephaly, beaked nose, short palpebral fissures, camptodactyly, joint contractures, and moderate developmental delay were similar to trisomy 9q, although our patient also had unique features including cleft palate and several unexplained fractures. The latter could be secondary to abnormal tone and contractures. Although tetrasomy 9p is a well-known entity, our patient, to our knowledge, is the first and only individual reported to have tetrasomy 9q.
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ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = trisomy
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