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11/22. acrocallosal syndrome in a child with de novo inverted tandem duplication of 12p11.2-p13.3.

    Report on the child of normal unrelated parents presenting the typical features of acrocallosal syndrome (craniofacial dysmorphy, mental deficiency, convulsive disorder, agenesis of corpus callosum, preaxial polydactyly "hallux duplex" of both feet, and in addition diabetes insipidus) in which a mirror duplication of nearly the entire short arm of chromosome 12 was discovered. Since the symptomatology of trisomy and tetrasomy 12p shows some overlap with acrocallosal syndrome a common origin of the monogenic disorder and the chromosomal phenotypes is discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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12/22. Identification of an unbalanced X-autosome translocation by array CGH in a boy with a syndromic form of chondrodysplasia punctata brachytelephalangic type.

    Screening of a large series of patients with unexplained mental retardation with a 1 Mb BAC array resulted in the detection of several cryptic chromosomal imbalances. In this paper we present the findings of array CGH screening in a 14-year-old boy with the brachytelephalangic type of chondrodysplasia punctata, mental retardation and obesity. On several occasions, cytogenetic analysis of this boy revealed a normal karyotype. Subsequent screening with array CGH resulted in the detection of a distal 9p trisomy and distal Xp nullisomy caused by an unbalanced X;9 translocation: 46,Y,der(X)t(X;9)(p22.32;p23). The identification of this de novo chromosomal rearrangement not only made accurate genetic counselling possible but also explained most of the phenotypic abnormalities observed in this patient. This study confirms the power of array CGH in the detection of subtle or submicroscopic chromosomal changes.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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13/22. Anatomical analysis of the developmental effects of aneuploidy in man--the 18-trisomy syndrome: II. Anomalies of the upper and lower limbs.

    We report the anatomical variations of the limbs in eight infants with the trisomy-18 syndrome that were dissected and studied in detail. In each case, the upper limbs showed defects which further define the specific influence of this aneuploidy on the development of its preaxial (radial) component, and the tendency towards reduction defects. Abnormalities included muscle variations concentrated along the radial margin of the forearm and hand, the absence of the definitive musculocutaneous nerve in all of the limbs, and reductions of the radial artery in four of the bodies. Pathogenetic mechanisms explaining the observed defects are discussed, and include: 1) a defect in peripheral nerve development; or 2) tissue necrosis. The characteristic flexion deformities of the fingers seem to be due to a displacement of the tendons of extensors digitorum and digiti minimi. The lower limbs did not show a consistent pattern of defects, except for the absence of some muscles (psoas minor, the tendon of flexor digitorum brevis to digit V), and the presence of several supernumerary muscles. These variations are discussed as possible nonspecific effects of 18-trisomy on development. The additional anatomical data from this and the first paper in this series [Bersu and Ramirez-Castro, 1977] provide a more detailed picture of the trisomy-18 phenotype which may be useful in corroborating an unconfirmed clinical diagnosis of the syndrome.
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ranking = 7
keywords = trisomy
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14/22. Proximal duplications of chromosome 15: clinical dilemmas.

    The apparently rare cytogenetic abnormality of partial trisomy 15 was diagnosed by the authors in a patient presenting with developmental retardation, macrocephaly with ventricular enlargement and prominent subarachnoid spaces, hypotonia, low-set ears, hyperextensible wrists and hands, high arched palate, tapering fingers, right esotropia, and bilateral metatarsus adductus. Clinical findings in this case are similar to previously reported cases of proximal duplications of chromosome 15 and bear some similarity to the prader-willi syndrome. However, our patient did not have the severe hypotonia, early failure to thrive, or genital abnormalities seen in classical prader-willi syndrome. This case supports the theory that a variety of cytogenetic aberrations in proximal 15q can cause a "Prader-Willi-like" syndrome. Increased clinical suspicion is needed when patients are seen with hypotonia, retarded development and mild dysmorphism if the variety of phenotypes are to be delineated.
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ranking = 7.6431427863569
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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15/22. Partial trisomy 9 : clinical and cytogenetic correlations.

    A study of three new cases with different trisomies involving chromosome 9 and a review of about 100 cases of partial trisomy 9 reported in the literature, suggested some cytogenetical and clinical correlations and lead us to propose the nomenclature of Rethore's syndrome type 1 and type 2.
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ranking = 11.643142786357
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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16/22. FISH diagnosis of partial trisomy 13 and tetrasomy 13 in a patient with severe trigonocephaly (C) phenotype.

    An infant girl with manifestations resembling Optiz trigonocephaly (C) syndrome who died at age 6 days was found to have a complex chromosome abnormality with t(13;18)(q22;q23) and a recombinant chromosome 13 involving duplicated segments of 13q. Precise characterization was possible with the application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using chromosome specific probes. The patient's phenotype is compared to that of other syndromes involving trigonocephaly.
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ranking = 30.572571145427
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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17/22. Calcification of basal ganglia in a patient with partial trisomy 5q and partial monosomy 18q.

    A patient with partial trisomy for the distal segment of the long arm of chromosome 5 (q35.1-->qter) with partial 18q monosomy is presented. The mother of the patient was phenotypically normal and was proved to be a carrier of a reciprocal translocation of the long arm of chromosomes 5 and 18 46,XX,t(5;18)(q35.1;q23). The patient shows mild mental retardation, short stature, mild obesity, dysmorphic face, eczema, minor malformations of the extremities, and bilateral intracranial calcification in the basal ganglia. Most of the clinical manifestations of the patient are compatible with the previously reported clinical features of partial trisomy of the distal segment of 5q. However, the calcification of bilateral basal ganglia has not been reported for this chromosomal anomaly.
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ranking = 45.858856718141
keywords = partial trisomy, trisomy
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18/22. Non-mosaic tetrasomy 9p in a liveborn infant with multiple congenital anomalies: case report and comparison with trisomy 9p.

    tetrasomy of the short(p) arm of chromosome 9 has been reported in few cases. Most of these children present with microbrachycephaly, wide forehead, hypertelorism, lowset, malformed ears, beaked noses, and micrognathia. Additional anomalies include short neck, congenital heart disease, genital abnormalities, multiple limb defects, hypotonia, and early death.
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ranking = 4
keywords = trisomy
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19/22. Der(22)t(11;22) resulting from a paternal de novo translocation, adjacent 1 segregation, and maternal heterodisomy of chromosome 22.

    The t(11;22) (q23;q11) translocation is the most frequently identified familial reciprocal translocation in humans. In translocation carriers, 3:1 meiotic segregation with tertiary trisomy can occur resulting in abnormal progeny with the der(22) as the supernumary chromosome. Affected children have a distinct phenotype with multiple anomalies and severe mental retardation. We have identified a child with developmental delay and multiple anomalies consistent with the der(22) phenotype. cytogenetic analysis showed an abnormal chromosome complement of 47,XX, der(22)t(11;22)(q23; q11) in all 50 cells analysed. FISH analysis using chromosome 11 and 22 painting probes showed a pattern consistent with a reciprocal translocation of the distal bands 11q23 and 22q11 respectively. Parental karyotypes were normal. RFLP analysis of locus D22S43, which maps above the t(11;22) breakpoint, showed that the der(22) was paternal in origin and indicated that the normal chromosomes 22 were the probable result of maternal heterodisomy. RFLP analysis of locus D22S94, which maps below the t(11;22) breakpoint, also suggested that both normal chromosomes 22 of the child represented the two maternal homologues. Non-paternity was excluded through the analysis of 10 microsatellite markers distributed on 10 different chromosomes and three VNTRs on three different chromosomes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with an abnormal karyotype resulting from a de novo translocation in the paternal germline with probable unbalanced adjacent 1 segregation and maternal non-disjunction of chromosome 22 in meiosis I.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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20/22. Proximal partial 5p trisomy resulting from a maternal (19;5) insertion.

    We present a case with a partial duplication 5p11-->5p13.3 resulting from a maternal ins (19,5)(p11;p11-p13.3). The diagnosis was confirmed by FISH and complement component determinations. The clinical picture was similar to those described in patients with complete duplication of the short arm and in some patients with partial 5p duplications, affecting at least band 5p13. A special significance of band 5p13 in the clinical severity of 5p duplications is discussed.
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ranking = 4
keywords = trisomy
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