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1/27. A sporadic case of tetramelic mirror-image polydactyly and unilateral tibial hypoplasia without associated anomalies.

    We report a sporadic case of tetramelic mirror-image polydactyly in combination with unilateral tibial aplasia. No chromosomal or other associated abnormalities were found. The appearance and function of the upper and lower limbs were improved by surgery.
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2/27. osteosarcoma associated with absent thumbs: a report of two cases.

    An 8-year-old Hispanic boy with a hypoplastic left thumb, absent right thumb, and short stature experienced right leg pain and limp. A right tibial lesion was imaged and found to be osteosarcoma on biopsy. A 6-year-old Hispanic girl with congenitally absent thumbs experienced a pathologic fracture of her left femur after a minor sports injury. The radiologic abnormality seen was diagnosed as osteosarcoma on biopsy. Both patients continue to do well after intensive preoperative and postoperative high-dose chemotherapy and definitive reconstructive limb surgery. osteosarcoma has been linked to several congenital syndromes in which absent thumbs are a feature. These two patients with absent thumbs and no definable syndrome experiencing osteosarcoma suggest that congenitally absent thumbs might be a risk factor for osteosarcoma in the absence of a syndrome.
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3/27. Are triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly syndrome (TPTPS) and tibial hemimelia-polysyndactyly-triphalangeal thumb syndrome (THPTTS) identical? A father with TPTPS and his daughter with THPTTS in a Thai family.

    We report on a Thai man who had triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly syndrome (TPTPS, MIM *190605) and his daughter who had tibial hemimelia-polysyndactyly-triphalangeal thumb syndrome (THPTTS, MIM *188770). The father had polysyndactyly of triphalangeal thumbs, syndactyly of fingers, duplicated distal phalanx of the left great toe, brachymesophalangy of toes, and the absence of middle phalanges of some toes. He was diagnosed as having TPTPS. His daughter was more severely affected, having complete syndactyly of five-fingered hands in rosebud fashion (Haas-type syndactyly), hypoplastic tibiae, absent patellae, thick and displaced fibulae, preaxial polysyndactyly of triphalangeal toes, and cutaneous syndactyly of some toes, the manifestations being consistent with THPTTS. Having two different syndromes in the same family suggests that they are actually the same disorder. A literature survey showed that there have been several families where THPTTS occurred with TPTPS or Haas-type syndactyly (and/or preaxial polydactyly type 2, PPD2). In addition, all loci for TPTPS, THPTTS, and PPD2 (and/or PPD3) have been assigned to chromosome band 7q36. These findings support our conclusion that TPTPS, PPD2 (and/or PPD3), and Haas-type syndactyly are a single genetic en-tity (THPTTS). We propose to call the condition "tibial hemimelia-polysyndactyly-triphalangeal thumbs syndrome." copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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4/27. Bilateral tibial agenesis with ectrodactyly (OMIM 119100): further evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance.

    We present further evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance of the bilateral tibial agenesis/ectrodactyly dysostosis. A consanguineous Turkish couple gave birth to three children with malformations. The first, a boy, died neonatally of pulmonary hypertension with congenital alveolar capillary dysplasia and also had tibial agenesis and ectrodactyly. A second child, a girl, died after birth with the same abnormality of the lungs without skeletal malformations. After the birth of three unaffected children, echographic examination at 15 weeks of gestation in the sixth pregnancy documented agenesis of tibiae and symmetrical ectrodactyly of hands and feet. autopsy did not show additional malformations, and lung development was normal for gestational age. This observation also confirms the autosomal recessive inheritance pattern of congenital alveolar capillary dysplasia.
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5/27. Tibial/femoral hypoplasia with "hook" pelvis: a potentially unique dysostosis.

    We report a 2-year-5-month-old girl with malformed lower limbs. The radiographic skeletal survey revealed agenesis of the ilio-pubic rami with pubic dehiscence, right hip dislocation, bilateral coxa vara, short femurs, femoro-tibial synchondrosis, bilateral hypoplastic tibiae more severe on the left side, and hypoplastic left calcaneus and talus. To the best of our knowledge, this combination of multiple congenital skeletal abnormalities has not been reported before.
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6/27. VATER--tibia aplasia association: report on two patients.

    We report two patients with oesophageal atresia, tracheo-oesophageal fistula and unilateral tibial aplasia. The karyotype in both patients was normal and both cases were sporadic. The congenital defects of the children can be regarded as an uncommon variant of VA(C)TER(L) association. Recently Basel and Goldblatt [(2000) Clin Dysmorphol 9:205-208] reported a similar patient with a VATER-tibia aplasia association.
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7/27. A pair of sibs with tibial hemimelia born to phenotypically normal parents.

    Tibial hemimelia is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by deficiency of the tibia with relatively intact fibula. Tibial hemimelia is identified as a solitary disorder, or a part of more complex malformation syndromes. Although the majority of cases with tibial hemimelia are sporadic, affected families with possible autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive inheritance have been reported. Here we report a pair of sibs, 6- and 2-year-old Japanese boys, with tibial hemimelia born to unrelated, phenotypically normal parents. The type of tibial hemimelia and associated malformations of hands and feet was quite different between the brothers. The elder brother was compatible with the Gollop-Wolfgang complex, and the younger brother with tibial agenesis-ectrodactyly syndrome. Screening of mutation by direct sequencing of candidate genes including Sonic hedgehog, HOXD-11, and HOXD-12 was unable to identify a disease-causing mutation.
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ranking = 1.8
keywords = tibia
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8/27. Disproportionate short stature, type E brachydactyly and exostoses of tibiae in a patient with an xyy karyotype. A 'new' syndrome?

    An 18-year-old male with an xyy karyotype is reported with short stature, normal intelligence and normal personality, in contrast to the XYY syndrome which can be characterized by tall stature, mental subnormality and aggressive behaviour. The patient, in addition, had exostoses of the tibiae bilaterally and type E brachydactyly; this association has not previously been described in patients with the xyy karyotype.
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9/27. Bilateral congenital longitudinal deficiency of the tibia associated with split hand and atrial septal defect.

    We present the case of a 17-year-old boy with bilateral tibial hypoplasia and associated split hand and atrial septal defects. These have been reported previously to occur together by other investigators. There were no chromosomal abnormalities and the parents were non-consanguineous.
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10/27. Bilateral congenital split hand with tibial aplasia.

    The authors report on a child with bilateral typical split-hand (ectrodactyly) and tibial aplasia, probably the first Indian report. Minor limb malformations in the maternal side suggests an autosomal dominant inheritance. The clinical spectrum and the inheritance of this malformation are discussed. Prenatal screening in families with such malformations is essential.
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