Cases reported "hand deformities"

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11/50. Craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome revisited.

    In 1983 Sommer described a new syndrome in a mother and her infant daughter which was subsequently called the syndrome of craniofacial, hand anomalies and sensorineural deafness. The syndrome consisted of a normal calvarium with a flat facial profile, hypertelorism and small palpebral fissures with an antimongoloid slant, a depressed nasal bridge with a button tip and slitlike nares and a small "pursed" mouth. Profound sensorineural hearing loss and ulnar deviation of the hands with flexion contractures of digits three, four and five was evident. The family had another child, a son, two years after the birth of the index case that had the exact manifestations as his mother and sister. Because of three affected family members in two generations and a phenotype of midfacial anomalies and dystopia canthorum resembling waardenburg syndrome, a search for mutations in the PAX3 gene was undertaken. A missense mutation in the paired domain of PAX3 (Asn47Lys) was detected. We have provided a 20-year follow-up of a syndrome characterized by craniofacial anomalies, hearing loss and hand deformities and which is caused by a PAX3 missense mutation. ( info)

12/50. A novel mutation, Thr65Ala, in the MPZ gene in a patient with Charcot-Marie-tooth type 1B disease with focally folded myelin.

    Charcot-Marie-tooth type 1B disease is a demyelinating neuropathy caused by mutations in the Myelin Protein Zero gene. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. So far only a few patients with a focally folded myelin phenotype on nerve biopsy have been shown to have mutations in the Myelin Protein Zero gene. In this report we describe a Polish patient with Charcot-Marie-tooth type 1B disease. sural nerve biopsy demonstrated focally folded myelin. Molecular genetic analysis of the coding region of the Myelin Protein Zero gene revealed a novel mutation, Thr65Ala, in exon 2 of the Myelin Protein Zero gene. ( info)

13/50. Popliteal pterygium syndrome with unusual features.

    Popliteal pterygium syndrome is a well defined complex that consists of popliteal pterygium, intercrural pterygium, various digital anomalies that include hypoplasia or agenesis of digits, syndactyly, valgus or varus deformities of the feet and oral anomalies such as cleft lip-palate. A baby with the typical anomalies as well as a few unusual features such as mongloid slant, hypertelorism, malformed alae nasi and elbow joint contractures is reported. ( info)

14/50. Clinical and genetic heterogeneity in Desbuquois dysplasia.

    Desbuquois dysplasia is a rare chondrodysplasia of autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by short stature, joint laxity, facial anomalies, a "Swedish key" appearance of the proximal femur, and advanced carpal and tarsal bone age. patients with Desbuquois dysplasia can be divided in two groups, depending on whether hand changes include an extra ossification center distal to the second metacarpal and whether phalangeal dislocations are present or absent. We have recently reported linkage of a Desbuquois dysplasia gene to 17q25.3 in a group of patients with typical hand abnormalities. Here, we report on the exclusion of the 17q25.3 locus in three inbred Desbuquois families originated from turkey, Asia, and morocco without typical hand abnormalities. Microsatellite dna markers from the 17q25.3 region were used at an average spacing of 2 cM, and the three affected individuals from families 1 to 3 were heterozygous for the 17q25.3 region. These results allow us to exclude this region as the locus in Desbuquois families with no hand anomalies and demonstrate genetic heterogeneity. Ongoing studies will hopefully lead to the identification of the responsible genes. ( info)

15/50. growth hormone deficiency, anorectal agenesis, and brachycamptodactyly: a phenotype overlapping Stratton-Parker syndrome.

    Stratton and Parker [1989] described a 17-month-old boy with the previously unreported combination of growth hormone (GH) deficiency, Wormian bones, mild developmental delay, brachycamptodactyly, heart defects, kidney hypoplasia, imperforate anus, bilateral cryptorchidism, and facial anomalies. A similar case was later reported by Gabrielli et al. [1994], who suggested the existence of a "Stratton-Parker syndrome." Here, we describe a boy with isolated GH deficiency, body asymmetry, and brachycamptodactyly. At birth, complete anorectal agenesis and cryptorchidism were detected, which required surgical treatment. Radiographic examination showed the presence of bilateral proximal radioulnar subluxation and Kirner anomaly. brain MRI showed asymmetry of the posterior horns of the lateral ventricles and enlarged cisterna magna. Psychomotor development had been mildly delayed during the first years of life. Due to the unique association of GH deficiency with intestinal, genital, and limbs abnormalities, we believe that our patient may represent a further case of Stratton-Parker syndrome. All patients reported, till date, are sporadic males born to healthy nonconsanguineous parents. X-linked recessive inheritance is a possibility to consider. ( info)

16/50. Oto-palato-digital syndrome type II. Report of two related cases.

    Two cases with major features of bowed long bones, hypertelorism, mandibular hypoplasia and hand and foot abnormalities with early neonatal death due to respiratory failure are presented. The radiologic and clinical findings are in keeping with oto-palato-digital syndrome type II and differ significantly from other causes of bowed long bones such as campomelic and kyphomelic dysplasias. ( info)

17/50. adult ectodermal dysplasia syndrome resulting from the missense mutation R298Q in the p63 gene.

    Several ectodermal dysplasia syndromes have been shown to result from mutations in the gene that encodes the transcription factor p63. We describe an 11-year-old boy, with clinically normal parents, who had a developmental disorder that resembled EEC (ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-clefting) syndrome (OMIM 604292). He had ectrodactyly and missing middle fingers bilaterally, onychodysplasia, hypodontia with missing teeth, hypohidrosis and lacrimal duct obstruction. dna sequencing disclosed a heterozygous G-->A substitution at nucleotide 893, that converts an arginine residue (CGA) to glutamine (CAA), the mutation being designated R298Q. This mutation occurs within the dna-binding domain of p63, and is close to many of the published EEC syndrome mutations. However, R298Q has been described once previously in a large German pedigree, not with EEC syndrome, but another ectodermal dysplasia disorder, adult (acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth) syndrome (OMIM 103285). Further clinical assessment in our patient revealed that, apart from not having cleft lip and/or palate, he had an exfoliative dermatitis of his hands and feet, and some freckling on his face and shoulders. Collectively, these features support a diagnosis of adult syndrome. This study has identified a specific genotype-phenotype correlation in a rare ectodermal dysplasia syndrome and the findings are useful in improving genetic counselling in this family. ( info)

18/50. Increased nuchal translucency and split-hand/foot malformation in a fetus with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 2q that removes the SHFM5 locus.

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and discuss the clinical, cytogenetic and molecular findings in a fetus with the first prenatally detected interstitial deletion of chromosome 2q. CASE REPORT: A fetus with increased nuchal translucency on routine ultrasound examination at 13 weeks' gestation was found to have severe upper-limb abnormalities on follow-up ultrasound examination at 16 weeks. The pregnancy was terminated, and the autopsy revealed monodactyly of the right upper limb, oligodactyly of the left upper limb and bilateral split foot, as well as atrial and ventricular septal defects and mild facial dysmorphism. RESULTS: Cytogenetic studies and haplotype analysis of the fetus and both parents showed that the fetus carried a de novo deletion encompassing a region of about 30 Mb on the paternal chromosome 2q (karyotype 46,XX,del(2)(q24.2-q32.2)). CONCLUSION: This is the first instance of increased nuchal translucency associated with a chromosome 2q deletion. Moreover, the striking malformations affecting all four of the fetus' limbs support previous suggestions that a novel locus for split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM5) lies on chromosome 2q31. ( info)

19/50. Biliary lithiasis in early pregnancy and abnormal development of facial and distal limb bones (Binder syndrome): a possible role for vitamin k deficiency.

    BACKGROUND: Binder syndrome is a maxillonasal dysostosis characterized by midface and nasal hypoplasia, sometimes associated with short terminal phalanges of fingers and toes and transient radiological features of chondrodysplasia punctata. warfarin- or phenytoin-induced vitamin k deficiency during early pregnancy is a well-established etiology for this syndrome, which occurs nevertheless sporadically in most cases. CASE(S): We describe here the first case, to our knowledge, of Binder syndrome in a child whose mother presented with biliary lithiasis in early pregnancy. The mother proved to have a decrease in clotting factors II, VII, and X, and in prothrombin time, at 11 weeks of gestation, which was highly suggestive of vitamin k deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: The biliary lithiasis-induced vitamin k deficiency in early pregnancy is likely to have resulted in Binder syndrome. This observation should prompt physicians to carefully check for vitamin k deficiency in pregnant women presenting with biliary lithiasis, in order to prevent Binder syndrome in the fetus by providing intravenous vitamin K supplementation as soon as possible. Finally, reassuring genetic counseling regarding the genetic risk for future pregnancies is to be provided to the parents. ( info)

20/50. Molecular analysis of non-syndromic preaxial polydactyly: preaxial polydactyly type-IV and preaxial polydactyly type-I.

    Human GLI3 gene mutations have been identified in several phenotypes of digital abnormality such as Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome, pallister-hall syndrome, preaxial polydactyly type-IV (PPD-IV) and postaxial polydactyly. However, the different phenotypes resulting from GLI3 mutations have not yet been properly defined. We have experienced two types of digital abnormality without other complicating developmental defects; a family with foot PPD-IV with syndactyly of the third and fourth fingers, and four sporadic cases with biphalangeal thumb polydactyly (PPD-I). The genes responsible for syndactyly of the third and fourth fingers (syndactyly type-I) and PPD-I have not yet been identified; we therefore examined the involvement of the GLI3 gene in these subtypes of digital abnormality. We found a non-sense mutation in the GLI3 gene in the family with foot PPD-IV accompanied with hand syndactyly of the third and fourth fingers, but no mutations were detected in the GLI3 gene in the four other cases with PPD-I alone. Thus, the phenotype of foot PPD-IV accompanied with hand syndactyly of the third and fourth fingers may result from a GLI3 mutation, whereas the PPD-I phenotype alone is not caused by GLI3 gene defect. These results will help to define the phenotypic spectrum of GLI3 morphopathies, which have been recently proposed. ( info)
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