Cases reported "Hand Injuries"

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1/71. Ultrasonic assistance in the diagnosis of hand flexor tendon injuries.

    In contrast to routine flexor tendon injuries, flexor tendon ruptures following blunt injury or re-ruptures following repair can be difficult to diagnose. The authors investigated the efficacy of using ultrasound to assist in the diagnosis. From 1996 to 1997, 8 patients underwent evaluation of the flexor tendons using an ATL HDI-3000 ultrasound machine with a high-resolution, 5 to 9-MHz hockey stick linear probe. Dynamic evaluation was performed in real time, simulating clinical symptoms. Six patients underwent surgical exploration. Sonographic diagnosis and intraoperative findings were correlated. Ultrasound was used to diagnose 3 patients with ruptured flexor digitorum profundus tendons. Mechanisms of injury included forceful extension, penetrating injury, and delayed rupture 3 weeks after tendon repair. Subsequent surgical exploration confirmed the ruptures and location of the stumps. Five patients had intact flexor tendons by ultrasound after forceful extension, penetrating injury, phalangeal fracture, crush injury, and unknown etiology. In 3 patients who underwent surgery for tenolysis, scar release, or arthrodesis, the flexor tendons were found to be intact, as predicted by ultrasound. The authors found ultrasound to be accurate in diagnosing the integrity of flexor tendons and in localizing the ruptured ends. They conclude that ultrasound is helpful in evaluating equivocal flexor tendon injuries.
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2/71. Osteolipoma of the hand: a case report.

    A 61-year-old, healthy woman presented with a six-month history of a mass on the radial volar aspect of her dominant right hand. The patient had a history of trauma to the hand six years previously. Radiographs showed a bony lesion in the index metacarpal shaft and the MRI showed a bony lesion and soft tissue mass suggestive of a parosteal lipoma. Surgical excision of the lesion revealed a lipoma overlying a bony exostosis or osteolipoma of the hand. Post-operatively, the patient's symptoms resolved and she had no recurrence of the tumor.
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3/71. Clinical applications of the posterior rectus sheath-peritoneal free flap.

    Soft-tissue injuries involving the dorsum of the hand and foot continue to pose complex reconstructive challenges in terms of function and contour. Requirements for coverage include thin, vascularized tissue that supports skin grafts and at the same time provides a gliding surface for tendon excursion. This article reports the authors' clinical experience with the free posterior rectus sheath-peritoneal flap foil dorsal coverage in three patients. Two patients required dorsal hand coverage; one following acute trauma and another for delayed reconstruction 1 year after near hand replantation. A third patient required dorsal foot coverage for exposed tendons resulting from skin loss secondary to vasculitis. In all three patients, the flap was harvested through a paramedian incision at the lateral border of the anterior rectus sheath. After opening the anterior rectus sheath, the rectus muscle was elevated off of the posterior rectus sheath and peritoneum. When elevating the muscle, the attachments of the inferior epigastric vessels to the posterior rectus sheath and peritoneum were preserved while ligating any branches of these vessels to the muscle. Segmental intercostal innervation to the muscle was preserved. The deep inferior epigastric vessels were then dissected to their origin to maximize pedicle length and diameter. The maximum dimension of the flaps harvested for the selected cases was 16 X 8 cm. The anterior rectus sheath was closed primarily with non-absorbable suture. Mean follow-up was 1 year, and all flaps survived with excellent contour and good function in all three patients. Complications included a postoperative ileus in one patient, which resolved after 5 days with nasogastric tube decompression.
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4/71. Dorsalis pedis tendocutaneous delayed arterialized venous flap in hand reconstruction.

    We report two patients whose acute soft-tissue and tendon defects in the hand were treated with a dorsalis pedis tendocutaneous delayed arterialized venous flap between 1994 and 1997. The surviving surface area was 100 percent in both patients. The flap sizes were 10 x 10 cm and 6 x 6 cm. At 2 weeks postoperatively, active flexion and passive extension commenced, and progressive resistance exercises were performed for an additional 5 weeks. Flaps showed a similar color match and skin texture compared with the normal skin of the hand. Advantages of the tendocutaneous delayed arterialized venous flap are that a larger flap can be obtained than when using a pure venous flap or arterialized venous flap; the survival rate of the arterialized venous flap increases, which permits the use of a composite flap; the main artery of the donor site is preserved; thin, nonbulky tissue is used; and elevation is easy, without deep dissection. The disadvantages are the two-stage operation, donor-site scarring, and weak extension of the toes.
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5/71. Optimizing the correction of severe postburn hand deformities by using aggressive contracture releases and fasciocutaneous free-tissue transfers.

    Severe postburn hand deformities were classified into three major patterns: hyperextension deformity of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the fingers with dorsal contracture of the hand, adduction contracture of the thumb with hyperextension deformity of the interphalangeal joint, and flexion contracture of the palm. Over the past 6 years, 18 cases of severe postburn hand deformities were corrected with extensor tenotomy, joint capsulotomy, and release of volar plate and collateral ligament. The soft-tissue defects were reconstructed with various fasciocutaneous free flaps, including the arterialized venous flap (n = 4), dorsalis pedis flap (n = 3), posterior interosseous flap (n = 3), first web space free flap (n = 3), and radial forearm flap (n = 1). Early active physical therapy was applied. All flaps survived. Functional return of pinch and grip strength was possible in 16 cases. In 11 cases of reconstruction of the dorsum of the hand, the total active range of motion in all joints of the fingers averaged 140 degrees. The mean grip strength was 16.5 kg and key pinch was 3.5 kg. In palm reconstruction, the wider contact area facilitated the grasping of larger objects. In thumb reconstruction, key-pinch increased to 5.5 kg and the angle of the first web space increased to 45 degrees. Jebsen's hand function test was not possible before surgery; postoperatively, it showed more functional recovery in gross motion and in the dominant hand. Aggressive contracture release of the bone,joints, tendons, and soft tissue is required for optimal results in the correction of severe postburn hand deformities. Various fasciocutaneous free flaps used to reconstruct the defect provide early motion, appropriate thinness, and excellent cosmesis of the hand.
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6/71. Isolated fracture of the trapezoid.

    We describe a case of an isolated trapezoid fracture that was managed nonoperatively with a favorable clinical outcome. To our knowledge and based on a literature review, this is the first report of a true isolated trapezoid fracture without accompanying dislocation and without associated metacarpal, carpal, or distal radial fractures. We present our findings in this case and review the clinical presentation, diagnostic workup, and treatment of trapezoid fractures in general.
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7/71. Perforator-based forearm and hand adipofascial flaps for the coverage of difficult dorsal hand wounds.

    The author presents several case studies of alternative therapy for large and small dorsal hand and finger defects. These alternatives avoid the need for a lengthy free flap procedure, avoid the meticulous dissection required by the posterior interosseous flap, and avoid the loss of radial artery required by the reverse radial forearm flap. Distally based hand and forearm adipofascial flaps consist of the subcutaneous fat and fascia of the hand and/or forearm. They are easy to elevate, with operative times typically less than 2 hours, and can cover surfaces ranging from an individual finger to the entire dorsum of the hand. The blood supply is based on the rich profusion of perforators that exist in the hand and wrist. If desired, a skin paddle can be included with these flaps. These techniques are an important addition to the plastic and hand surgeon's armamentarium.
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8/71. Traumatic axial dislocation of the carpus: a case report of transscaphoid pericapitate transhamate axial dislocation.

    Traumatic axial dislocation of the carpus in a 20-year-old man is described. This injury was accompanied by a crushing injury to the hand. The disruption pattern was different from those of previously reported cases. Despite the restoration of painless wrist motion postoperatively, grip strength remained below normal. Early accurate reduction, fixation, and range of motion (ROM) exercise are the treatment of choice in such complex injuries.
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9/71. Resurfacing of a totally degloved hand using thin perforator-based cutaneous free flaps.

    Resurfacing after a total degloving injury to the hand is one of the most difficult management problems in hand surgery. Although there are many methods of managing this type of injury that preserve functions and lessen deformities, none provides a satisfactory solution to this problem. The authors resurfaced a totally degloved hand using extremely thin and broad perforator-based cutaneous free flaps, and the donor defects were covered with split-thickness skin grafts. The postoperative course was uneventful, the flaps survived completely, and the grafts took without loss. Several minor operations, including interdigitation, defatting, and the formation of palmar and digital creases, were required to obtain the final appearance and function of the hand. Eighteen months after the initial operation, the patient could pick up a bean with a pair of chopsticks. sensation was satisfactory in the palm 20 months after the initial operation, as evidenced by 10 mm of static two-point discrimination. To reconstruct a total and complete skin defect of the hand, the authors recommend that thin perforator-based cutaneous free flaps be an initial consideration.
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10/71. Free flap from the flexor aspect of the wrist for resurfacing defects of the hand and fingers.

    The distal portion of the flexor aspect of the forearm has been used as the donor site of full-thickness skin grafts, venous skin grafts, and Chinese forearm flaps. This article describes the use of a free flap harvested from the flexor aspect of the wrist and based on the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery to repair skin defects of the hand and fingers. The advantages of this flap are as follows: (1) the operative field is the same; (2) the radial artery is preserved; (3) it is thin, pliable, and hairless and thus can supply a gliding surface for tendons beneath it; (4) when it involves a palmaris longus tendon and/or the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve, it can be used as a vascularized tendon or nerve graft; and (5) in view of the flow-through type of the pedicle of the flap, the digital artery can be reconstructed simultaneously. However, it should be noted that a hypesthesia in the proximal central carpal area remains when the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve is harvested as a vascularized nerve graft. The scar of the donor site should be left in the distal wrist crease. If it is not lying in the distal wrist crease, it may suggest that the patient has tried to commit suicide.
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