Cases reported "Head Injuries, Closed"

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1/47. aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery caused by a traumatic perforating artery tear-out mechanism in a child.

    Traumatic posterior circulation aneurysms in the absence of fractures and penetrating wounds are extremely uncommon, especially in children. To our knowledge this is the first traumatic posterior inferior cerebellar artery(pica) aneurysm reported that cannot be related to a skull fracture or a trauma caused by the edge of a rigid meningeal structure. In the present case, the initial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was caused by a perforating artery, originating from the pica, which was torn out as the result of a deceleration trauma. Such a mechanism explains both the initial SAH and the development of the false aneurysm responsible for the second SAH.
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ranking = 1
keywords = skull fracture, fracture, skull
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2/47. Acute traumatic posteroinferior cerebellar artery aneurysms: report of three cases.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Posterior fossa subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to blunt head trauma is rarely associated with traumatic aneurysms of the posterior circulation. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We present three cases of posterior fossa subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured posteroinferior cerebellar artery (pica) aneurysms after blunt head trauma. In each case, there was no associated penetrating injury or cranial fracture. All three patients presented with acute hydrocephalus requiring ventriculostomy. Two of the three patients had a proximal pica aneurysm visible on emergent angiography. The remaining patient's aneurysm, although not visible on his initial angiogram, was detected on a subsequent angiogram 72 hours later. INTERVENTION: All patients underwent successful surgical clipping of their aneurysms. Two cases required sacrificing of the parent vessels because of the friable nature of the false aneurysms. In each case, severe symptomatic vasospasm occurred, requiring angioplasty. All three patients also required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for persistent hydrocephalus. CONCLUSION: Features of these three cases and similar cases reported in the literature support the theory that vascular ruptures and traumatic aneurysms of the proximal pica may be related to anatomic variability of the pica as it transverses the brainstem. This variability predisposes individuals to vascular lesions, which occur in a continuum based on the severity of the injury. Posterior fossa subarachnoid hemorrhage after head injury requires a high index of suspicion and warrants aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.
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ranking = 0.01979622153619
keywords = fracture
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3/47. Sigmoid sinus thrombosis after mild closed head injury in an infant: diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging in the acute phase--case report.

    Intracranial sinus thrombosis following a mild closed head injury without a skull fracture or intracranial hematoma is extremely rare. A 23-month-old girl presented with vomiting and gait ataxia 1 day after occipital trauma. Computed tomography revealed a slightly increased density area in the region of the left sigmoid sinus. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated an isointense area in the left sigmoid sinus and T2-weighted imaging showed a hyperintense area reflecting the characteristics of oxyhemoglobin. MR angiography and cerebral angiography indicated occlusion of the left sigmoid sinus. After 4 days of conservative treatment, her symptoms subsided completely. Follow-up MR angiography and cerebral angiography showed recanalization of the sigmoid sinus. The MR images and MR angiograms were useful for both early diagnosis and follow-up. Treatment should reflect the severity of individual cases, and early diagnosis will help achieve a good outcome.
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ranking = 0.98020377846381
keywords = skull fracture, fracture, skull
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4/47. golf buggy related head injuries.

    Our department has recently managed three cases of serious head injuries resulting from falls from golf buggies. One of them sustained moderate head injury with a small cerebral contusion and skull fracture. Two of them sustained severe head injury with extensive cerebral contusions, extradural haematoma requiring craniotomy. Of the three patients, two made good recoveries whereas the third remained vegetative.We feel that instruction on the safe use of golf buggies is inadequate and should be intensified.
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ranking = 0.98020377846381
keywords = skull fracture, fracture, skull
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5/47. Sigmoid and transverse sinus thrombosis after closed head injury presenting with unilateral hearing loss.

    Sinus thrombosis has rarely been associated with closed head injury; more often, thrombosis of the sigmoid or transverse sinus is caused by otogenic inflammations or tumours, or occurs during pregnancy. Symptoms are frequently vague, while untreated thrombus progression may be fatal due to venous congestion and infarction. We report a 32-year-old man presenting with right hearing loss, tinnitus and headache 2 days after a closed head injury. Neurological examination showed no additional abnormality. The EEG showed focal bifrontal slowing. CT revealed a fracture of the occipital bone. MRI and MRA demonstrated complete thrombosis of the right sigmoid and transverse sinuses. After 2 weeks of intravenous heparin therapy followed by warfarin, the patient's hearing improved and MRI and MRA showed complete recanalisation of the sigmoid and transverse sinuses. Venous sinus thrombosis can be an undetected sequel to head injury. Appropriate imaging studies should be carried out to enable therapy to be started as soon as possible.
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ranking = 0.01979622153619
keywords = fracture
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6/47. Proximal M2 false aneurysm after head trauma--Case report.

    A 72-year-old male presented with a post-traumatic false aneurysm of the right proximal M2 artery with massive subarachnoid hemorrhage after closed head injury. Serial computed tomography (CT) and angiography showed the development of the aneurysm which was verified at autopsy. He was admitted in a drowsy state just after a motorcycle accident. Initial brain CT showed subarachnoid hemorrhage without skull fracture. Follow-up brain CT showed a huge hematoma in the right temporal lobe. He died 47 hours after the accident. Histological examination of the aneurysm showed a false aneurysm. delayed diagnosis of traumatic aneurysms leads to high mortality, so early surgical treatment is essential to save such patients.
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ranking = 0.98020377846381
keywords = skull fracture, fracture, skull
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7/47. Fate of free muscle transfer covering chronically infected burned skull.

    This case report describes a 28-year-old male who sustained a 46,000-V cranial electrical injury that resulted in devascularization, necrosis, and secondary infection of the skull despite bone coverage with a free muscle transfer. In the face of osteomyelitis of the skull, the free muscle transfer and the brain were not compromised. A review of the literature and this case reinforce the practice of leaving the skull in place and covering it with vascularized tissue. Resection of the infected skull and later replacement with alloplastic material were curative.
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ranking = 0.038610748006934
keywords = skull
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8/47. A rare clival and sellar fracture with pneumatocephalus.

    We present a case of clival and sellar complex fracture produced by an indirect mechanism. This previously healthy patient had an occipital trauma followed by epistaxis. CT showed a clival and sellar fracture with pneumatocephalus. The probable fracture mechanism was contre-coup injury, linked to cerebral shock-wave transmission. This type of fracture is generally observed in the anterior part of the skull base, in a low resistance area. Severe osteoporosis probably accounted for the unusual fracture site in this patient. A mechanism of direct clival transmission is discussed, together with the usual complications of sphenoid injuries.
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ranking = 0.18299233732658
keywords = fracture, skull
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9/47. Growing fractures of the orbital roof. A report of two cases and a review.

    Growing fractures rarely arise in the skull base. Only six cases of orbital roof growing fractures were found in the relevant literature. We report two such cases. The first case was a 2-year-old girl who had progressive proptosis for 6 months following a mild head injury 1 year previously. The second case was a 9-year-old girl with a history of injury at the age of 3 months. She developed eye deviation and proptosis for 1 year. Computed tomography scan is excellent for demonstrating bony defects in the orbital roof, while magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive in showing the intraorbital extension of a leptomeningeal cyst. Both patients were operated successfully and proptosis disappeared postoperatively. The exact pathophysiology of growing fractures is still debated in the literature, but a dural laceration along a fracture line is noted in all cases, and frontobasal brain injury seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the fracture growth. Growing fractures of the orbital roof should be suspected if ocular symptoms appear in a child who had sustained a head injury several months or years before.
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ranking = 0.20278855886277
keywords = fracture, skull
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10/47. Applying circular posterior-hinged craniotomy to malignant cerebral edemas.

    Malignant brain edemas are often fatal, regardless of whether they are treated conservatively with sedation, blood pressure management, mannitol-therapy, hyperventilation and hypothermia, or non-conservatively with routine trepanation. Unfortunately, temporal trepanation may result in significant brain damage through herniation of the cerebrum at the edges of the trepanation openings. In one case of a 26-year-old male with severe head injury, a circular posterior-hinged craniotomy (CPHC) was performed after an ineffective unitemporal trepanation for evacuation of an acute subdural hematoma. This ultimately successful operation prompted experimental and morphologic investigations on a new surgical procedure for lowering intracranial pressure (ICP). In 12 of 15 human cadavers, an experimentally ICP was lowered by a CPHC with between 9-21 mm of frontal elevation of the calvaria. Using computer simulation, the frontal elevations of the calvaria were "virtually" performed on 3D reconstructions from CT scans of skulls, and the intracranial volume gained was measured with a computer software program. The volume increase of the cranial cavity showed a relatively constant relation to the cranial capacity and was increased by 6.0% ( /-0.4%) or 78 cm(3) with a 10 mm elevation and by 12.4% ( /-0.7%) or 160 cm(3) with a 20 mm elevation. There were no significant differences with skulls of different ages or ethnic origin; however, a significant effect of gender (F = 7.074; P < or = 0.013) on the gained volume in percent of the cranial capacity for the 20 mm elevation was observed. This difference can be explained by the inverse relationship between volume increase and cranial capacity (r = -0.507; P < or = 0.004).
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ranking = 0.0096526870017334
keywords = skull
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