Cases reported "Headache"

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1/118. Chronic subdural haematoma following caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia.

    Intracranial subdural haematoma is a rare complication of spinal anaesthesia. This report describes the case of a 31-year-old woman who presented with post partum headache following spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. Bilateral haematomata were evacuated via burr-holes performed under total intravenous anaesthesia and the patient made a complete and uneventful recovery. The recognized causes of subdural haematoma are discussed.
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2/118. The syndrome of spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    The authors report four cases of headache and other symptomatology related to the syndrome of intracranial hypotension. They were seen in a routine clinical practice over the past 3 years. The clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and follow-up of these patients are described. review of the prior literature on the topic is also included. All four patients presented with orthostatic headache syndrome. Three of the four demonstrated diffuse leptomeningeal thickening and enhancement on MRI studies. One subsequently developed a subdural effusion. One patient demonstrated downward displacement of the posterior fossa initially, which resolved on follow-up MRI scanning. Possible pathophysiologies of the syndrome are discussed.
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3/118. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    PURPOSE: To describe a patient with classic presentation of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and subsequent improvement with targeted epidural blood patch. methods: Report of one case and review of the literature. RESULTS: Examination of cerebrospinal fluid after lumbar puncture disclosed a reduced opening pressure, an increased level of protein, and lymphocytic pleocytosis. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with gadolinium showed diffuse enhancement of the pachymeninges, no evidence of leptomeningeal enhancement, and chronic subdural fluid collection. Radionuclide cisternography demonstrated reduced activity over the cerebral convexities, early accumulation of radiotracer in the urinary bladder, and direct evidence of leakage at the cervicothoracic junction (C7-T1). Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic features were consistent with the diagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Therapy with a targeted epidural blood patch resulted in the rapid resolution of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In this report, we describe a classic case of spontaneous intracranial hypotension in a 63-year-old man with an initial presentation of postural headaches, blurred vision, pain in the left eye, diplopia on left gaze, and neck soreness.
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4/118. Low-pressure shunt 'malfunction' following lumbar puncture in children with shunted obstructive hydrocephalus.

    Most shunt malfunctions present with signs and symptoms of high intracranial pressure, and computed tomography scans demonstrate ventricular enlargement. However, several authors have described a rare 'low-pressure' hydrocephalic state in which ventricular enlargement can occur in the face of low, or even negative, intracranial pressures. We report 2 children with obstructive hydrocephalus in whom this 'low-pressure state' followed a lumbar puncture; in both children, the shunts were functioning properly despite increased ventricular size on computed tomography scans, and all symptoms resolved (and the ventricles returned to baseline) following a period of enforced recumbency without shunt revision. We hypothesize that subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid leakage through the puncture site in the lumbar theca decreases the intracranial pressures globally to a point below the opening pressures of the shunt valves. The ventricular cerebrospinal fluid, unable to be drained through either the subarachnoid space or the shunt, accumulates within the ventricular system under low pressure. One consistent feature in our 2 patients has been the postural nature of the headaches. We recommend enforced recumbency and, if necessary, a blood patch to seal the lumbar leakage. Shunt revision or prolonged external ventricular drainage appears to be unnecessary in these patients. Finally, neurosurgeons should be aware of this potential complication.
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5/118. Early rebleeding from intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: report of 20 cases and review of the literature.

    OBJECT: In this study the authors sought to estimate the frequency, seriousness, and delay of rebleeding in a homogeneous series of 20 patients whom they treated between May 1987 and May 1997 for arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) that were revealed by intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The natural history of intracranial dural AVFs remains obscure. In many studies attempts have been made to evaluate the risk of spontaneous hemorrhage, especially as a function of the pattern of venous drainage: a higher occurrence of bleeding was reported in AVFs with retrograde cortical venous drainage, with an overall estimated rate of 1.8% per year in the largest series in the literature. However, very few studies have been designed to establish the risk of rebleeding, an omission that the authors seek to remedy. methods: Presenting symptoms in the 20 patients (17 men and three women, mean age 54 years) were acute headache in 12 patients (60%), acute neurological deficit in eight (40%), loss of consciousness in five (25%), and generalized seizures in one (5%). Results of the clinical examination were normal in five patients and demonstrated a neurological deficit in 12 and coma in three. Computerized tomography scanning revealed intracranial bleeding in all cases (15 intraparenchymal hematomas, three subarachnoid hemorrhages, and two subdural hematomas). A diagnosis of AVF was made with the aid of angiographic studies in 19 patients, whereas it was a perioperative discovery in the remaining patient. There were 12 Type III and eight Type IV AVFs according to the revised classification of Djindjian and Merland, which meant that all AVFs in this study had retrograde cortical venous drainage. The mean duration between the first hemorrhage and treatment was 20 days. Seven patients (35%) presented with acute worsening during this delay due to radiologically proven early rebleeding. Treatment consisted of surgery alone in 10 patients, combined embolization and surgery in eight, embolization only in one, and stereotactic radiosurgery in one. Three patients died, one worsened, and in 16 (80%) neurological status improved, with 15 of 16 AVFs totally occluded on repeated angiographic studies (median follow up 10 months). CONCLUSIONS: The authors found that AVFs with retrograde cortical venous drainage present a high risk of early rebleeding (35% within 2 weeks after the first hemorrhage), with graver consequences than the first hemorrhage. They therefore advocate complete and early treatment in all cases of AVF with cortical venous drainage revealed by an ICH.
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keywords = subdural
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6/118. Cranial subdural haematoma associated with dural puncture in labour.

    A 23-yr-old primagravida sustained a dural puncture during epidural catheter insertion and developed a headache that settled with oral diclofenac and codydramol. On the third day after delivery, she convulsed twice without warning. As plasma urate was increased, the putative diagnosis of an eclamptic fit was made, and magnesium therapy was started. A contrast CT scan revealed that the cause of the patient's symptoms was a subdural haematoma with raised intracranial pressure. A coincidental arteriovenous malformation was noted. This case emphasises the need to consider the differential diagnoses of post-partum headache. The management of acute intracranial haematoma is described.
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keywords = subdural
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7/118. An unusual case of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage caused by wakeboarding.

    Wakeboarding is a relatively new and exciting sporting activity which is similar to water-skiing. While there have been several reports of water-skiing-related injuries, there has been nothing reported in the literature so far concerning injuries in wakeboarding. We present the case of a 14-year-old male who sustained an unusual intracranial subdural hemorrhage while wakeboarding and postulate on the mechanisms which could have resulted in the injury.
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keywords = subdural
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8/118. Epidural blood patch after thoracotomy for treatment of headache caused by surgical tear of dura.

    IMPLICATIONS: During a right lobectomy operation, a patient with carcinoma of the lung developed postoperative headache caused by a leak of cerebrospinal fluid from an area of dura injured during the procedure. Conservative treatment was unsuccessful. Injection of 10 mL of the patient's own blood into the epidural space relieved the headache.
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keywords = space
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9/118. Meningiomas of the paranasal sinuses.

    Extracranial meningiomas are rare tumors, comprising approximately 2% of all meningiomas. Previously reported sites include the orbit, parapharyngeal space, and rarely, the paranasal sinuses. A retrospective chart review of patients with meningiomas was performed over the last 25 years, and three patients were identified with meningiomas involving the paranasal sinuses. The locations included the frontal sinus, the ethmoid sinus, and the sphenoid sinus. Presenting symptoms included facial pain and nasal obstruction; two patients noted facial swelling. diagnosis was established via endoscopic transnasal biopsy in two patients. Computed tomographic (CT) guided biopsy was utilized to confirm the diagnosis in the third patient. Surgical extirpation was successfully performed with tumors arising from the ethmoid and frontal sinuses. The patient with neoplasm in the sphenoid sinus underwent radiation therapy. Extracranial meningiomas of the paranasal sinuses are rare tumors that may present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We present three cases and discuss the clinical presentation, radiographic findings, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment options.
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keywords = space
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10/118. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension during pregnancy.

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is characterized by postural headache associated with low cerebrospinal fluid pressure. CASE: A 37-year-old Japanese woman, gravida 3, para 2, had sudden onset of severe postural headache at 8 weeks' gestation, accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Results of medical and neurologic examinations were normal, and there was no measurable cerebrospinal fluid pressure on lumbar puncture. brain magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse subdural fluid collection and a narrowing of the ambient cistern, confirming the diagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. After a month of bed rest and intravenous fluid infusion, all symptoms subsided gradually and did not recur. CONCLUSION: Obstetricians should be aware that spontaneous intracranial hypotension can occur in pregnancy.
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keywords = subdural
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