Cases reported "Headache"

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1/96. Nonaneurysmal thunderclap headache with diffuse, multifocal, segmental, and reversible vasospasm.

    OBJECTIVE: To highlight the clinical profiles and angiographic findings of two patients with recurrent thunderclap headache (TCH) without subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to present modified diagnostic criteria for this unusual syndrome. BACKGROUND: TCH may be a benign recurrent headache disorder or it may represent a serious underlying process such as SAH or venous sinus thrombosis. The pathophysiology of this disorder in the absence of underlying pathology is not well understood and its potential angiographic features are not well appreciated. methods: Two case descriptions with illustrative angiography. RESULTS: Both cases demonstrated the potential for reversible intracranial vasospasm without intracranial aneurysm or SAH and a benign clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Primary TCH has a distinctive clinical and angiographic profile and must be distinguished from central nervous system vasculitis and SAH.
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ranking = 1
keywords = thrombosis
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2/96. headache: cortical vein thrombosis and response to anticoagulation.

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is being diagnosed more frequently with the use of advanced radiologic imaging. The presentation of CVT includes a wide spectrum of nonspecific symptoms with headache predominating. We present a case with acute, severe headache. The evaluation included a head computed tomography (CT) scan that was normal. The presence of opacified sinuses led to treatment for sinusitis. The patient returned the following day with a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study identified an isolated cortical venous thrombosis. This patient was treated with anticonvulsant and anticoagulation therapy. A CVT is an unusual cause of headache and should be considered in patients with atypical presentation or associated seizure, or who are refractory to current therapy. diagnosis may be made with MRI. Resolution and complete recovery are possible with appropriate therapy.
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ranking = 6.8471034388261
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, vein thrombosis, vein
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3/96. Use of mechanical thrombolysis via microballoon percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for the treatment of acute dural sinus thrombosis: case presentation and technical report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Although conventional superselective chemical thrombolysis is frequently successful for the treatment of severe acute dural sinus thrombosis, the technique has limitations and risks. This prompted us to develop a supplemental technique for achieving more rapid recanalization, using coronary microballoon percutaneous transluminal angioplasty catheters. We describe a successful application of this technique and technology that has not been previously reported. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: After several days of severe headaches, photophobia, and vomiting, a 29-year-old woman presented with rapidly progressive neurological deficits secondary to complete occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and right transverse/sigmoid sinus complex. Owing to her rapid neurological decline, she was referred for emergency endovascular intervention. TECHNIQUE: Initially, superselective chemical thrombolysis of the SSS was performed using urokinase. However, because of the extensive nature of the thrombus and lack of initial therapeutic response, we elected to attempt mechanical thrombolysis with various coronary percutaneous transluminal angioplasty microballoon catheters. This was accomplished by initial coaxial positioning of the device into an occluded segment, followed by gentle inflation and retraction of the device along the course of the right transverse sinus and/or SSS. These maneuvers were repeated with balloons of increasingly large diameter. Near-complete restoration of venous outflow was obtained within the SSS with preferential runoff into the left transverse sinus. The right transverse sinus was only partially recanalized. Despite the patient's rapid neurological decline on presentation, she experienced a dramatic clinical recovery with near-complete reversal of neurological deficits within 24 hours of intervention. CONCLUSION: This report shows the feasibility of performing safe and effective mechanical thrombolysis with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty coronary balloon microcatheters within the major dural sinuses. This technique can probably accelerate clot disruption and thrombolysis, possibly resulting in a more rapid restoration of venous flow.
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ranking = 5
keywords = thrombosis
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4/96. Orbital drainage from cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the neuro-ophthalmic findings in patients with orbital drainage from cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). methods: We reviewed the records of 100 consecutive adult patients with cerebral AVMs who presented to our institution during a 4-year period. All patients with orbital drainage were identified, and their neuro-ophthalmic evaluations were reviewed. RESULTS: Three patients (3%) were identified with orbital drainage from a cerebral AVM. The first patient presented with typical chiasmal syndrome (reduced visual acuity, bitemporal hemianopia, and optic atrophy). magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large left temporal and parietal lobe AVM with compression of the chiasm between a large pituitary gland and a markedly enlarged carotid artery. The second patient presented with headaches and postural monocular transient visual obscurations. Examination revealed normal visual function with minimal orbital congestion and asymmetrical disc edema, which was worse in the left eye. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large right parietal and occipital lobe AVM without mass effect or hemorrhage and an enlarged left superior ophthalmic vein. The third patient had no visual symptoms and a normal neuro-ophthalmic examination; a right parietal lobe AVM was discovered during an examination for the cause of headaches. CONCLUSION: Orbital drainage from cerebral AVMs is rare. Manifestations may include anterior visual pathway compression, dilated conjunctival veins, orbital congestion, and asymmetrical disc swelling.
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ranking = 0.0041567908348034
keywords = vein
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5/96. 'Herald hemiparesis' of basilar artery occlusion: early recognition by transcranial Doppler ultrasound.

    A transient hemiparesis may be ocassionally present at an early stage of the thrombosis of the basilar artery (herald hemiparesis). We report on one of these cases and the valuable role of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) to the early detection of the stroke-in-evolution. TCD in the emergency room is a good tool to assess a basilar occlusion, searching for direct (absence of signal at the basilar artery) and indirect (reversal flow of the pre-communicating segment the of posterior cerebral artery through the posterior communicating artery) signs. Early recognition and treatment of this condition could avoid the development of the full syndrome of the basilar artery thrombosis.
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ranking = 2
keywords = thrombosis
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6/96. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula with perimesencephalic subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    A case is reported of a 66 year old woman presenting with perimesencephalic subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) which was caused by a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula at the C1 level. The fistula drained into the venous system of the posterior cranial fossa through a perimedullary vein. The bleeding was thought to result from venous hypertension induced by the fistula. This case may support the hypothesis that perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal SAH can be ascribed to venous bleeding and that venous hypertension is the key to its pathology.
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ranking = 0.0020783954174017
keywords = vein
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7/96. Traumatic intracerebral venous thrombosis associated with an abnormal golf swing.

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence of cerebral venous thrombosis in a 40-year-old man whose cerebral event was induced by a poor golf swing, to review the literature on possible mechanisms producing venous thrombosis, and to compare this case with the literature. BACKGROUND: headache is the most frequent symptom in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis. However, patients presenting with a headache due to cerebral venous thrombosis are uncommon. The known risk factors for thrombosis include both acquired and genetic factors. When the interaction of these two groups occurs, the magnitude of this interaction is thought to produce a dynamic state that can favor thrombosis. Our case report illustrates that moderate levels of anticardiolipin antibodies together with the mild trauma of a golf swing can induce a cerebral venous thrombosis. This case also suggests that although headache is rarely due to cerebral venous thrombosis, it should be excluded by good medical acumen and testing. RESULTS: Minor trauma induced by a poor golf swing was chronologically related to the development of a progressive cerebral venous thrombosis. The patient had none of the risk factors associated with a predisposition to venous thrombosis: hypercoagulable state, concurrent infection, pregnancy/puerperium, collagen vascular disorder, malignancy, migraine, false-positive VDRL, previous deep vein thrombosis, renal disease, factor v Leiden, or a hematological disorder. There was no anatomical abnormality that would predispose the patient to a cerebral venous thrombosis. The only laboratory abnormality was a moderate anticardiolipin antibody level (25 GPL). The patient was placed on warfarin sodium therapy and is currently without clinical sequela from the venous thrombotic event. CONCLUSIONS: Under certain circumstances, minor trauma can induce cerebral venous thrombosis. A review of the literature indicates that cerebral venous thrombosis in the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies and in the absence of systemic lupus erythematosus is a rare event. Previously, only major traumatic events have been reported to be associated with cerebral venous thromboses. The chronological development of cerebral venous thrombosis after a faulty golf swing strongly indicates that given a background of moderate levels of anticardiolipin antibodies, even minor trauma can induce a venous thrombotic event.
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ranking = 25.25075617736
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, vein thrombosis, vein, deep
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8/96. diabetes mellitus with left transverse sinus thrombosis and right transverse sinus aplasia.

    A 67-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus was hospitalized due to a throbbing headache. She appeared neurologically normal, except for meningeal irritation. The cerebrospinal fluid pressure was high. There was increased fluid protein without an increased cell count. brain CT scan showed no abnormality, however, brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed complete right transverse sinus stasis and partial left transverse sinus stasis, indicating bilateral transverse sinus thrombosis. At this time thrombin anti-thrombin III complex (TAT) and prothrombin fragment F1 2 (PTF1 2) indicating hypercoagulation had increased. Urokinase, followed by aspirin and ticlopidine hydrochloride were administered. After diet therapy and transient insulin administration, her blood glucose levels improved. By the 22nd day, the headache had disappeared. Subsequently, brain MRA showed left transverse sinus blood flow recovery and complete right transverse sinus stasis, while carotid angiography showed recovered left transverse sinus but right transverse sinus defect. TAT and PTF1 2 levels improved concomitantly with better blood glucose control. We diagnosed this case as left transverse sinus thrombosis because of the hypercoagulable state resulting from diabetes mellitus accompanied by right transverse sinus aplasia.
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ranking = 6
keywords = thrombosis
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9/96. Changing pattern of headache pointing to cerebral venous thrombosis after lumbar puncture and intravenous high-dose corticosteroids.

    OBJECTIVE: To emphasize the diagnostic importance of change in the headache pattern which pointed to cerebral venous thrombosis in two patients after lumbar puncture and high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone for suspected multiple sclerosis. RESULTS: Both patients had a diagnostic lumbar puncture for suspected multiple sclerosis and were treated with high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone. Both developed a postlumbar puncture headache that was initially postural, typical of low cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Three days later, the headache became constant, lost its postural component, and was associated with bilateral papilledema. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain disclosed superior sagittal and lateral sinuses thrombosis. The diagnostic difficulties of such cases and the potential role of lumbar puncture and corticosteroids as risk factors for cerebral venous thrombosis are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: When a typical postdural puncture headache loses its postural component, investigations should be performed to rule out cerebral venous thrombosis, particularly in the presence of other risk factors.
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ranking = 10.726850688538
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis
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10/96. Postpartum postural headache due to superior sagittal sinus thrombosis mistaken for spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    PURPOSE: To describe a case of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis in the puerperal period and the difficulties encountered in the diagnosis and management. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 29-yr-old multiparous woman presented with a postural headache four weeks after a normal pregnancy and vigorous delivery. Initial presentation suggested spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) since there was no history of epidural or spinal anesthesia, or trauma or surgery to her back or neck. Conservative therapy was initially offered and then a lumbar epidural blood patch (LEBP) was performed, although it failed to relieve the postural headache. A dural leak could not be demonstrated but an MRV (magnetic resonance venography) revealed a superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST). Although anticoagulant therapy was immediately initiated, the neurologist remained convinced that the postural headache was secondary to SIH, and, consequently, a second epidural blood patch was requested. anesthesia was reluctant to perform an LEBP at this point and suggested continuing anticoagulation until a subsequent MRV demonstrated recannalization of the SSST. This advice was followed and the postural headache resolved spontaneously with intravenous anticoagulation. CONCLUSION: The present case illustrates the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to the management of this rare complication of pregnancy. This case also highlights the importance of reviewing the differential diagnosis when considering treatment of a postural headache in the puerperium.
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ranking = 6
keywords = thrombosis
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