Cases reported "Headache Disorders"

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1/7. Sudden unconsciousness during a lesser occipital nerve block in a patient with the occipital bone defect.

    Occipital nerve block is usually considered to be a very simple and safe regional anaesthetic technique. We describe a case of sudden unconsciousness during a lesser occipital nerve block in a patient with an occipital bone defect. A 63-year-old man complained of headache, which was localized to the right occipital region. A right lesser occipital nerve block with a local anaesthetic was performed for treatment. During the lesser occipital nerve block, the patient suddenly became disturbed and lost consciousness. Two hours after the incident, the patient was fully awake without neurological sequelae. He had previously undergone a microvascular decompression for right trigeminal neuralgia. The patient had a bone defect following craniotomy. We believed that the loss of consciousness during lesser nerve block may be due to a subarachnoid injection. Occipital nerve block is relatively contraindicated in the presence of a bone defect.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nerve block, nerve
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2/7. Two cases of medically and surgically intractable SUNCT: a reason for caution and an argument for a central mechanism.

    We report two cases of SUNCT that demonstrate the medically and surgically refractory nature of this disorder and support the hypothesis that the causative 'lesion' lies within the central nervous system. After both patients had failed medical therapies, the first underwent a glycerol rhizotomy, gammaknife radiosurgery and microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve. The second patient underwent gammaknife radiosurgery of the trigeminal root exit zone and two microvascular decompression surgeries. Neither patient benefited from these procedures. Currently, the first patient suffers from anaesthesia dolorosa and the second patient from unilateral deafness, chronic vertigo and dysequilibrium as a result of surgical trauma. These cases of SUNCT highlight the uncertainty regarding the role of surgery given the potential for significant morbidity. These cases also suggest that SUNCT originates and may be maintained from within the CNS and this central locus explains why SUNCT is not typically amenable to interventions aimed at the peripheral portion of the trigeminal nerve.
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ranking = 0.00035484244192522
keywords = nerve
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3/7. Triplication of the lesser occipital nerve.

    Triplication of the lesser occipital nerve (LON) was observed bilaterally in an adult male cadaver during routine prosection of the posterior triangle. The three LONs were studied to determine the clinical importance of this variation. The origin of one LON was from a nerve to the trapezius that had a common origin with the trunk of the supraclavicular nerve (C3,4) from the cervical plexus. Such a common origin of a LON may explain the pain referred to the shoulder and arm that is experienced by some patients with cervicogenic headache. Another LON ran across the roof of the posterior triangle, passed through the trapezius and was closely related to the point of exit of the greater occipital nerve (GON) from the trapezius. This LON supplied the nape of the neck, back of the scalp and the auricle. The anomalous course taken by this LON through the trapezius may be an explanation for cervicogenic headache precipitated by neck movement. The close relationship of this variant LON to the exit of the GON from the trapezius seems to be relevant to the management of cervicogenic headache. The authors suggest that the reason for the complete pain relief experienced by some patients with cervicogenic headache by anesthetic blockade of the GON may be because both the GON and LON are blocked simultaneously due to their proximity in these patients.
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ranking = 0.0014193697677009
keywords = nerve
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4/7. Local anesthetic blocks of the second cervical ganglion: a technique with application in occipital headache.

    Dissections of five human adult cadavers revealed that the C2 spinal ganglion bears a constant relationship to the dorsal aspect of the lateral atlanto-axial joint. Radiologically, the ganglion lies extradurally opposite the midpoint of the silhouette of the lateral atlanto-axial joint space. needles can be introduced onto this target point using fluoroscopic control and used to perform selective local anesthetic blocks of the C2 spinal nerve. This technique is applicable in cases where it is difficult to decide on clinical grounds whether occipital headaches are due to an upper cervical abnormality or are a symptom of tension headache or common migraine. In particular the technique anesthetizes the otherwise inaccessible articular branches of the median and lateral atlanto-axial joints which may be an occult source of headache.
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ranking = 0.00017742122096261
keywords = nerve
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5/7. Cervicogenic headache in patients with presumed migraine: missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis?

    The differential diagnosis of headache is often challenging, with significant clinical and socioeconomic consequences of incomplete or inaccurate diagnosis. Overlapping symptoms contribute to the diagnostic challenge. Four female patients, ages 26 to 69 with standing diagnoses of migraine, were evaluated and treated for complaints of chronic, severe headaches. All had obtained limited relief from migraine therapies. On physical examination, all had occipital nerve tenderness or positive Tinel sign over the occipital nerve. All responded well to occipital nerve blocks with local anesthetic, achieving complete or substantial pain relief lasting up to 2 months. We conclude that accurate diagnosis of occipital neuralgia or cervicogenic headache as contributing factors can lead to substantial headache relief through occipital nerve blocks in patients with coexisting or misdiagnosed migraine. PERSPECTIVE: The pathophysiology of many types of chronic headaches is not well understood. Mixed mechanisms such as neurovascular, neuropathic, myofascial, and cervicogenic may all contribute. Our four patients with chronic headaches responded well to occipital nerve blocks. The neuroanatomical relationship between the trigeminocervical nucleus and occipital nerve may serve as the basis of efficacy for these blocks.
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ranking = 0.30053226366289
keywords = nerve block, nerve
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6/7. Non-hypothalamic cluster headache: the role of the greater occipital nerve in cluster headache pathogenesis.

    cluster headache is marked by its circadian rhythmicity and the hypothalamus appears to have a significant influence over cluster pathogenesis. However, as not all cluster patients present in the same manner and not all respond to the same combination of medications, there is likely a nonhypothalamic form of cluster headache. A patient is presented who began to develop cluster headaches after receiving bilateral greater occipital nerve (GON) blockade. His headaches fit the IHS criteria for cluster headache but had some irregularities including frequent side shifting of pain, irregular duration and time of onset and the ability of the patient to sit completely still during a headache without any sense of agitation. This article will suggest that some forms of cluster headache are not primarily hypothalamic influenced and that the GON may play a significant role in cluster pathogenesis in some individuals.
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ranking = 0.00088710610481305
keywords = nerve
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7/7. A case of pulsed radiofrequency lesioning for occipital neuralgia.

    OBJECTIVE: This report describes a case where pulsed radiofrequency lesioning (RFL) of the greater occipital nerve (GON) offered a valuable and safe treatment for the management of greater occipital neuralgia. The case is considered in relation to a review of the medical literature on greater occipital neuralgia and RFL interventions. CASE REPORT: A 62-year-old man with a 43-year history of left suboccipital pain underwent pulsed RFL of the left GON (20-millisecond bursts at intervals of 0.5 second for 4 minutes at 42 degrees C) after failing to achieve substantial analgesia with naproxen, a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator (TENS) unit and a greater occipital nerve blockade (GONB) utilizing local anesthetic and steroid. After obtaining 4 months of 70% pain relief, pulsed RFL was repeated and resulted in an additional 5 months of 70% pain relief. CONCLUSIONS: Pulsed RFL of the GON is an alternative to continuous RFL with the proposed advantage of mitigating pain, as in continuous RFL, but without the potential risk of causing deafferentation pain. While placebo and other nonspecific analgesic effects cannot be ruled out, the apparent safety profile and potential efficacy of pulsed RFL suggests it may be a compelling option to consider before irreversible neuroablative therapies are applied.
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ranking = 0.10035484244193
keywords = nerve block, nerve
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