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11/1409. Bilateral facial nerve schwannomas.

    facial nerve schwannoma is an uncommon tumor and bilateral facial nerve tumors are extremely rare. A case is presented in which neuromas affecting the intra-canalicular and labyrinthine portions of both facial nerves occurred. Radiologic assessment demonstrated the origin of these tumors. Eventual tumor involvement of the sole functioning cochlea resulted in the development of total hearing loss. Management entailed symptomatic care and surgical resection. Auditory rehabilitation was attempted using cochlear implantation, but results have not been satisfactory. Genetic screening identified a mutation in the NF2 gene. It is proposed that this patient's condition should be considered a variant of neurofibromatosis 2 and that bilateral facial neuromas should be included in the clinical criteria for this condition. ( info)

12/1409. Ototoxicity associated with vinblastine.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient with ototoxicity associated with vinblastine chemotherapy. CASE SUMMARY: A 29-year-old white man with recurrent Hodgkin's disease received doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy once every two weeks for 12 cycles. He reported tinnitus after each treatment, with an onset of about six hours and a duration of seven to 10 days. This interfered with reading, watching television, and general concentration. Symptoms returned to baseline prior to the beginning of each subsequent cycle. Audiograms performed before and after several cycles showed mild sensorineural hearing loss in the high-decibel range, but no loss of speech recognition. DISCUSSION: No reported cases of ototoxicity or tinnitus from ABVD were found. All concomitant medications were eliminated as possible causes either due to lack of temporal association with the symptoms or no reports of ototoxicity in the literature. vincristine, a more commonly used vinca alkaloid very similar to vinblastine, was noted to have caused several cases of sensorineural hearing loss. CONCLUSIONS: This case suggests that vinblastine may cause ototoxicity. ( info)

13/1409. Anti-labyrinthine antibodies in a patient with relapsing polychondritis.

    Relapsing polychondritis is a rare inflammatory disease that causes destruction of cartilaginous tissue in various anatomical regions. We report here about a 55-year-old female patient with relapsing polychondritis that involved the right auricle, both audiovestibular organs and both eyes. The patient presented with persisting inflammation of the right auricle, sudden lower-frequency hearing loss, acute moderate vertigo with nausea and mild ocular symptoms. Immunofluorescence assays were used for the detection of antibodies against the cochlea and the vestibular organ and demonstrated the presence of circulating antibodies against the audiovestibular organ. No staining for anti-corneal IgG was detected. Improvement of clinical disease was achieved by treatment with systemic steroids and vasodilator drugs, and long-term medication with low-dose corticosteroids. ( info)

14/1409. cochlear nerve aplasia: its importance in cochlear implantation.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to outline the possible implications and potentially valuable techniques for managing cases in which the neural integrity of the peripheral auditory system is in question. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a retrospective case review. SUBJECT AND METHOD: A 3-year-old child with a profound blilateral sensorineural hearing loss was assessed for suitability of cochlear implantation. Audiologic tests confirmed that the child met the audiologic criteria for cochlear implantation. Computed tomographic scanning and magnetic resonance imaging were undertaken. RESULTS: Computed tomographic scanning showed bilateral narrow internal auditory canals. magnetic resonance imaging showed the absence of the acousticofacial bundle on the left side and possible atrophy of the bundle on the right. After detailed discussion, the parents elected to proceed with implantation on the right ear using the Nucleus mini-22 cochlear implant. Tuning of the device resulted in myogenic facial activity with no electrically stimulated auditory sensation. Postoperative electrophysiologic testing confirmed the presence of a compound muscle action potential only. CONCLUSIONS: Seven months after implantation, the child was explanted uneventfully. The electrical auditory nerve action potential and the electrically evoked auditory brainstem response, using intracochlear stimulation, are potentially valuable measurements to assess neural integrity before the decision to proceed with implantation is made. ( info)

15/1409. A gene for fluctuating, progressive autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNA16, maps to chromosome 2q23-24.3.

    The sixteenth gene to cause autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL), DFNA16, maps to chromosome 2q23-24.3 and is tightly linked to markers in the D2S2380-D2S335 interval. DFNA16 is unique in that it results in the only form of ADNSHL in which the phenotype includes rapidly progressing and fluctuating hearing loss that appears to respond to steroid therapy. This observation suggests that it may be possible to stabilize hearing through medical intervention, once the biophysiology of deafness due to DFNA16 is clarified. Especially intriguing is the localization of several voltage-gated sodium-channel genes to the DFNA16 interval. These cationic channels are excellent positional and functional DFNA16 candidate genes. ( info)

16/1409. Cogan's syndrome with refractory abdominal aortitis and mesenteric vasculitis.

    Cogan's syndrome is a rare multisystem disease characterized by ocular inflammation, vestibuloauditory dysfunction, and vasculitis. We report a 26-year-old Caucasian woman who died from Cogan's syndrome. Her case illustrates that patients with Cogan's syndrome can have abdominal aortitis and mesenteric vasculitis, and that the vasculitis can be refractory to methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, and chlorambucil. ( info)

17/1409. Neuroaudiological effects in a case of fatal dimethylmercury poisoning.

    OBJECTIVE: The audiological examination of this patient was to determine the degree and type of hearing loss that was incurred from apparent dimethylmercury poisoning. DESIGN: This was a single subject case study design. Audiologic tests were selected to help determine sensory from neural and/or central auditory system dysfunction. RESULTS: This patient demonstrated an inability to understand speech, both in formal and informal assessments, yet relatively good hearing sensitivity for pure tones bilaterally. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions showed only minimal deficits in each ear. The auditory brain stem response was abnormal bilaterally, indicating neural and/or central involvement. CONCLUSION: Dimethylmercury poisoning, in this case, resulted in compromise of the auditory neural system with little effect on the sensory (cochlea) mechanism. ( info)

18/1409. Solitary plasmacytoma of the skull base presenting with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.

    Solitary plasmacytoma of the skull base is a rare entity with only a few reported cases in the literature. We review the literature and present our experience with this lesion that produced ipsilateral sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo and ipsilateral sixth nerve palsy. ( info)

19/1409. Auditory neuropathy with preserved cochlear microphonics and secondary loss of otoacoustic emissions.

    Auditory neuropathy is defined as absent or severely distorted auditory brainstem responses with preserved otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonics. This entity can be found in various circumstances including pre-lingual children. An almost universal characteristic reported from adult patients is the ineffectiveness of traditional hearing aids. Adequate management of pre-lingual cases therefore remains an open problem. This paper describes two pre-lingual children whose follow-up data demonstrated a selective loss of the otoacoustic emissions, whereas the cochlear microphonics remained preserved. In one of the patients, hearing aid fitting as soon as she lost her otoacoustic emissions proved successful. These findings have important implications for the operational definition of the condition, since one must be prepared to encounter cases with absent otoacoustic emissions. The present data also demonstrate that conventional amplification can benefit pre-lingual auditory neuropathy cases, at least once they have lost their otoacoustic emissions. ( info)

20/1409. Cutaneous-evoked tinnitus. I. Phenomenology, psychophysics and functional imaging.

    DC00166e and acute unilateral deafferentation of the auditory periphery (auditory and vestibular afferents) can induce changes in the central nervous system that may result in unique forms of tinnitus. These tinnitus perceptions can be controlled (turned on and off) or modulated (changed in pitch or loudness) by performing certain overt behaviors in other sensory/motor systems. Clinical reports from our laboratory and several other independent sources indicate that static change in eye gaze, from a neutral head-referenced position, is one such behavior that can evoke, modulate and/or suppress these phantom auditory events. This report deals with a new clinical entity and a form of tinnitus that can be evoked directly by cutaneous stimulation of the upper hand and fingertip regions. In 2 adults, cutaneous-evoked tinnitus was reported following neurosurgery for space-occupying lesions at the base of the skull and posterior craniofossa, where hearing and vestibular functions were lost completely and acutely in one ear (unilateral deafferentation) and facial nerve paralysis (unilateral deefferentation) was present either immediately following neurosurgery or had occurred as a delayed-onset event. Herein, we focus on the phenomenology of this discovery, provide perceptual correlates using contemporary psychophysical methods and document in one individual cutaneous-evoked tinnitus-related neural activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In a companion paper, neuroanatomical and physiological interactions between auditory and somatosensory systems, possible mechanistic accounts and relevant functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed. ( info)
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