Cases reported "Heart Aneurysm"

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1/121. Intraoperative left ventricular perforation with false aneurysm formation.

    Two cases of perforation of the left ventricle during mitral valve replacement are described. In the first case there was perforation at the site of papillary muscle excision and this was recognized and successfully treated. However, a true ventricular aneurysm developed at the repair site. One month after operation rupture of the left ventricle occurred at a second and separate site on the posterior aspect of the atrioventricular ring. This resulted in a false aneurysm which produced a pansystolic murmur mimicking mitral regurgitation. Both the true and the false aneurysm were successfully repaired. In the second case perforation occurred on the posterior aspect of the atrioventricular ring and was successfully repaired. However, a false ventricular aneurysm developed and ruptured into the left atrium producing severe, but silent, mitral regurgitation. This was recognized and successfully repaired. The implications of these cases are discussed.
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2/121. Three ventriculoplasty techniques applied to three left-ventricular pseudoaneurysms in the same patient.

    A 59-year-old male patient underwent surgery for triple-vessel coronary artery disease and left-ventricular aneurysm in 1994. Four months after coronary artery bypass grafting and classical left-ventricular aneurysmectomy (with Teflon felt strips), a left-ventricular pseudoaneurysm developed due to infection, and this was treated surgically with an autologous glutaraldehyde-treated pericardium patch over which an omental pedicle graft was placed. Two months later, under emergent conditions, re-repair was performed with a diaphragmatic pericardial pedicle graft due to pseudoaneurysm reformation and rupture. A 3rd repair was required in a 3rd episode 8 months later. Sternocostal resection enabled implantation of the left pectoralis major muscle into the ventricular defect. Six months after the last surgical intervention, the patient died of cerebral malignancy. Pseudoaneurysm reformation, however, had not been observed. To our knowledge, our case is the 1st reported in the literature in which there have been 3 or more different operative techniques applied to 3 or more distinct episodes of pseudoaneurysm formation secondary to post-aneurysmectomy infection. We propose that pectoral muscle flaps be strongly considered as a material for re-repair of left-ventricular aneurysms.
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keywords = operative
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3/121. Chronic haemoptysis as delayed complication of ventricular aneurysmectomy.

    Two patients developed a ventriculo-pulmonary fistula several years after original resection of a left ventricular aneurysm. Both presented with chronic mild haemoptysis. In the first case mild haemoptysis lasted nearly 19 months, and despite a battery of non invasive and invasive investigations, diagnosis was ultimately made via exploratory thoracotomy. In the second case mild haemoptysis lasted four months and finally manifested as a large haemoptysis. diagnosis was made preoperatively using echocardiography. We recommend the use of echocardiography when haemoptysis occurs in a patient with a previous history of ventricular aneurysm repair.
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keywords = operative
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4/121. Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle progressing from a subepicardial aneurysm.

    A 56-year-old man presented with an inferior myocardial infarction and a huge pseudoaneurysm below the inferior surface of the left ventricle, which had progressed from a small subepicardial aneurysm over a 6-month period. Transthoracic echocardiography, doppler color flow images, radionuclide angiocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging and contrast ventriculography all revealed an abrupt disruption of the myocardium at the neck of the pseudoaneurysm, where the diameter of the orifice was smaller than the aneurysm itself, and abnormal blood flows from the left ventricle to the cavity through the orifice with an expansion of the cavity in systole and from the cavity to the left ventricle with the deflation of the cavity in diastole. coronary angiography revealed 99% stenosis at the atrioventricular nodal branch of the right coronary artery. At surgery the pericardium was adherent to the aneurysmal wall and a 1.5-cm orifice between the aneurysm and the left ventricle was seen. Pathological examination revealed no myocardial elements in the aneurysmal wall. The orifice was closed and the postoperative course was uneventful. Over-intense physical activity as a construction worker was considered to be the cause of the large pseudoaneurysm developing from the subepicardial aneurysm. These findings indicate that a subepicardial aneurysm may progress to a larger pseudoaneurysm, which has a propensity to rupture, however, it can be surgically repaired.
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5/121. Posterior-septal pseudo-pseudoaneurysm with limited left-to-right shunt: an unexpected easy repair.

    Cardiac rupture represents a fatal complication of acute myocardial infarction within the first two weeks. In exceptional cases, the postinfarction rupture of the myocardium is not transmural but remains circumscribed within the wall itself as a cavity joined to the left ventricle through a narrow neck. This finding is usually defined as pseudo-pseudoaneurysm. We report a rare case of postinfarction posterior pseudo-pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle, perforated into the right ventricle. This unusual anatomy resulted, over a period of several years, by progressive intramural dissection of the surrounding necrotic myocardium with late formation of a large, partially fibrotic chamber, communicating either with left and right ventricles. Despite correct preoperative diagnosis was not achieved by 2D echocardiography, pulsed Doppler and contrast ventriculography, a successful surgical treatment was possible with a really good outcome.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = operative
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6/121. Treatment of left atrial dissection after mitral repair: internal drainage.

    Two patients with intraoperative dissection of the entire left atrium after mitral valve repair are presented. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography detected left atrial dissection with formation of a large cavity compressing the left atrium. The false lumen was opened and widely connected to the right atrium to perform the decompression. This technique permits the runoff into the low pressure system in case of persisting hemorrhage from the unknown entry, and eliminates the risk of systemic embolization from the cavity.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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7/121. Subvalvular left ventricular aneurysm following mitral valve replacement.

    Two cases are presented which represent different aspects of damage to the posterior wall of the left ventricle following mitral valve replacement. In the first case rupture of the ventricle occurred in the immediate postoperative period with a fatal result, while in the second, delayed aneurysm formation occurred with embolic and haemodynamic complications. This patient also did not survive. A review of the literature reveals four similar cases previously recorded. Possible aetiological factors are considered, including operative trauma, ischaemic damage, rupture of unsupported muscle, previous surgery with the development of pericardial adhesions and fixing of the valve ring, and finally abscess formation. The indications for operative intervention and possible complications of the aneurysm are noted.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = operative
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8/121. Acute rupture of a left ventricular false aneurysm.

    Left ventricular aneurysm develop when rupture of the free ventricular wall is contained by the inflammatory surrounding tissues. These false aneurysms rupture secondarily and should be treated soon after diagnosis. The diagnosis is suggested by echocardiography and confirmed by cardiac catheterization. Immediate surgery is recommended, with good survival in most reports. The patient presented in this report had ruptured his left ventricular false aneurysm before diagnosis. He was operated and had a good initial postoperative course. He died later from a severe pulmonary infection.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = operative
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9/121. Surgical repair of right-atrial aneurysm.

    atrial fibrillation and embolic events are the most common clinical symptoms of congenital right- or left-atrial aneurysms. We report an a case of righ-atrial aneurysm, in a patient with typical history of atrial fibrillation and history of stroke. The aneurysm was resected, but the patient suffered from acute embolic occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery on the fourth postoperative day despite of systemic heparinization with 300 IU/kg bw per 24 hours.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = operative
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10/121. Surgical treatment of a chest-wall penetrating left ventricular pseudoaneurysm.

    This report describes the treatment of a patient who developed a chest-wall penetrating pseudoaneurysm 3 years after coronary bypass grafting and after the resection of a lateral wall left ventricular aneurysm twice. The patient presented with a pulsatile tumor in the left submammilar region. Surgery was done in deep hypothermia, with femoro-femoral cannulation and via a left anterolateral thoracotomy. The perioperative course was uneventful and the patient is still well 5 years after surgery.
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keywords = operative
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