Cases reported "Heart Aneurysm"

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1/851. Pericardial heart disease: a study of its causes, consequences, and morphologic features.

    This report reviews morphologic aspects of pericardial heart disease. A morphologic classification for this condition is presented. An ideal classification of pericardial heart disease obviously would take into account clinical, etiologic and morphologic features of this condition but a single classification combining these three components is lacking. Pericardial heart disease is relatively uncommon clinically, and when present at necropsy it usually had not been recognized during life. The term "pericarditis" is inaccurate because most pericardial diseases are noninflammatory in nature. Morphologically chronic pericardial heart disease may present clinically as an acute illness. Even when clinical symptoms are present, however, few patients develop evidence of cardiac dysfunction (constriction). When pericardial constriction occurs, it is the result of increased pericardial fluid or increased pericardial tissue or both. Increased fluid is treated by drainage; increased tissue is treated by excision. In most patients with chronic constrictive pericarditis the etiology is not apparent even after histologic examination of pericardia. ( info)

2/851. Cardiocutaneous fistula.

    infection of the Teflon pledgets on the heart suture line after left ventricular aneurysm repair, presenting late with a fistulous tract connecting the heart with the skin (cardiocutaneous fistula) is an uncommon but potentially serious condition. The case is reported of a 73 year old man who developed a cardiocutaneous fistula extending through the left hemidiaphragm and draining at the abdominal wall, which developed six years after left ventricular aneurysmectomy. Following radiographic evaluation, which established the diagnosis, the Teflon pledgets and fistulous tract were successfully surgically removed. Prompt diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion. Eradication of infection requires excision of infected material, which must be planned on an individual basis. ( info)

3/851. Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle after isolated pericarditis and staphylococcus aureus septicemia.

    Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm after isolated pericarditis as a result of Staphylococcal septicemia is very rare. A case of a very young patient is described. diagnosis is made by echocardiography. Immediate surgical resection of the pseudoaneurysm is the therapy of choice. ( info)

4/851. Intraoperative left ventricular perforation with false aneurysm formation.

    Two cases of perforation of the left ventricle during mitral valve replacement are described. In the first case there was perforation at the site of papillary muscle excision and this was recognized and successfully treated. However, a true ventricular aneurysm developed at the repair site. One month after operation rupture of the left ventricle occurred at a second and separate site on the posterior aspect of the atrioventricular ring. This resulted in a false aneurysm which produced a pansystolic murmur mimicking mitral regurgitation. Both the true and the false aneurysm were successfully repaired. In the second case perforation occurred on the posterior aspect of the atrioventricular ring and was successfully repaired. However, a false ventricular aneurysm developed and ruptured into the left atrium producing severe, but silent, mitral regurgitation. This was recognized and successfully repaired. The implications of these cases are discussed. ( info)

5/851. Visualization of mitral valve aneurysm by transesophageal echocardiography.

    This article describes the transesophageal echocardiographic findings in a patient with pathologically proven mitral valve aneurysm. This aneurysm probably occurred as a complication of aortic valve endocarditis. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a saccular structure attached to the left atrial side of the anterior mitral leaflet with systolic expansion and diastolic collapse, and its orifice was visualized with excellent resolution. Transesophageal echocardiography is a useful diagnostic tool for evaluation of mitral valve aneurysm. ( info)

6/851. Comparison of transesophageal to transthoracic color Doppler echocardiography in the identification of intracardiac mycotic aneurysms in infective endocarditis.

    We report on cases of mycotic aneurysms in a group of 14 patients with infective endocarditis, all of whom were evaluated with transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal (TEE) color Doppler echocardiography. Four mycotic aneurysms were found, one each in the left ventricular outflow tract, the right coronary sinus of valsalva, the anterior mitral leaflet, and the atrial septum. With TTE, only three of four cases of mycotic aneurysms could be detected. Utilizing TEE, however, all were detected and their connections with the heart chambers or great vessels could be readily and clearly depicted, especially those in the atrial septum and mitral leaflet. We are of the opinion that TEE is superior to TTE in the identification and detailed analysis of mycotic aneurysms complicating infective endocarditis. In addition, we feel that echocardiography may help evaluate the progress of the disease, the location and direction of infection, and the extent of involvement of the mycotic aneurysms, providing useful information for guiding surgical intervention. ( info)

7/851. Spontaneous coronary arterial dissection causing acute myocardial infarction.

    We report the case of a middle-aged female who presented with an acute inferior myocardial infarction treated with intravenous thrombolytics. Immediate coronary angiography demonstrated the presence of a spiral dissection and a large thrombus. After 1 week of anticoagulation the thrombus had resolved, but a large spiral dissection persisted. This was confirmed by intracoronary ultrasound. We then review the literature on spontaneous coronary arterial dissection. ( info)

8/851. Post-infarction cardiac rupture.

    Three allied conditions are described in this paper: (i) haemopericardium with cardiac rupture (5 cases); (ii) haemopericardium without rupture (2 cases); (iii) pseudoaneurysm (1 case). In the first 2 of these, the significant features were clinical deterioration with shock 3 or more days after infarction, recurrent cardiac pain, cardiac tamponade, and immediate or later ineffectiveness of counterpulsation. An additional feature in the second group was the development of haemopericardium after heparin therapy. In the third group, infarction followed by left ventricular failure and progressive cardiac enlargement was the significant feature. An apical systolic murmur was not present, as a false sac had not been formed. Ante-mortem diagnosis depends upon an appreciation of these features. Without it successful surgery is impossible. There were 4 survivors in this group of 8 patients. ( info)

9/851. Potential utility of left heart contrast agents in diagnosis of myocardial rupture by 2-dimensional echocardiography.

    This case illustrates the use of intravenous injections of a contrast agent during 2-dimensional echocardiography in a patient with myocardial rupture after myocardial infarction. Intravenous injections of echocardiographic contrast agents may have potential use in the identification of intrapericardial hemorrhage after myocardial infarction caused by myocardial rupture or development of ventricular pseudoaneurysm. ( info)

10/851. Three ventriculoplasty techniques applied to three left-ventricular pseudoaneurysms in the same patient.

    A 59-year-old male patient underwent surgery for triple-vessel coronary artery disease and left-ventricular aneurysm in 1994. Four months after coronary artery bypass grafting and classical left-ventricular aneurysmectomy (with Teflon felt strips), a left-ventricular pseudoaneurysm developed due to infection, and this was treated surgically with an autologous glutaraldehyde-treated pericardium patch over which an omental pedicle graft was placed. Two months later, under emergent conditions, re-repair was performed with a diaphragmatic pericardial pedicle graft due to pseudoaneurysm reformation and rupture. A 3rd repair was required in a 3rd episode 8 months later. Sternocostal resection enabled implantation of the left pectoralis major muscle into the ventricular defect. Six months after the last surgical intervention, the patient died of cerebral malignancy. Pseudoaneurysm reformation, however, had not been observed. To our knowledge, our case is the 1st reported in the literature in which there have been 3 or more different operative techniques applied to 3 or more distinct episodes of pseudoaneurysm formation secondary to post-aneurysmectomy infection. We propose that pectoral muscle flaps be strongly considered as a material for re-repair of left-ventricular aneurysms. ( info)
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