Cases reported "Heart Arrest"

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1/100. Mild hypothermia for temporary brain ischemia during cardiopulmonary support systems: report of three cases.

    Recovery without residual neurological damage after cardiac arrest with temporary cerebral ischemia is rare. Therefore, it is most important that every effort is made to prevent brain damage occurring immediately after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We report herein the cases of three patients who suffered either cardiogenic or hypovolemic shock and were resuscitated by a cardiopulmonary support system followed by mild hypothermia. All three patients recovered completely without any neurologic damage. The outcomes of these three patients demonstrated that mild hypothermia may be important for cerebral preservation after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
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2/100. Successful resuscitation of a child with severe hypothermia after cardiac arrest of 88 minutes.

    A 4-year-old boy broke through the ice of a frozen lake and drowned. The boy was extricated from the icy water by a rescue helicopter that was dispatched shortly after the incident. Although the boy was severely hypothermic, no cardiac response could be induced with field resuscitation measures, including intubation, ventilation, suction, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. On admission, the primary findings included fixed, nonreacting pupils and asystole. The first core temperature measured was 19.8 degrees C (67.6 degrees F). During active, external warming, the first ventricular beats were observed 20 minutes after admission, and changed 10 minutes later to a sinus rhythm. Continuous monitoring included repeated arterial blood gas and electrolyte tests; prophylaxis for cerebral edema was performed with hyperventilation and administration of sodium Brevimytal and dexamethasone. Seventy minutes after admission, hemodynamics stabilized and the boy was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), where active external warming was continued to raise the core temperature at a rate of 1 degree C/hour. adult respiratory distress syndrome developed, and the boy had to be ventilated in the PICU for 10 days. He was discharged home after another two weeks. He recovered fully. The rapid heat loss with the induction of severe hypothermia (< 20 degrees C; 68 degrees F) was the main reason for survival in this rare event of a patient with cardiac arrest lasting 88 minutes after accidental hypothermia.
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3/100. Gas embolism during hysteroscopy.

    PURPOSE: Gas embolism during hysteroscopy is rare but sometimes fatal. A fatal case of gas embolism during diagnostic hysteroscopy using carbon dioxide (CO2) is presented. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 68 yr old woman was admitted for treatment of myoma and cancer of the uterus. hysteroscopy using CO2 was performed without monitoring or anesthesia on the ward. At the end of the examination, just after the hysteroscope was removed, she developed tonic convulsions, lost consciousness, and her pulse was impalpable. Cardiac massage was started, anesthesiologists were called and the trachea was intubated. She was transferred to the intensive care unit with continuous cardiac massage. Cardiac resuscitation was successful. A central venous line was inserted into the right ventricle under echocardiography in an attempt to aspirate gas with the patient in the Trendelenberg position, but the aspiration failed. Positive end expiratory pressure and heparin for emboli, midazolam for brain protection, and catecholamines were administered. Fifteen hours after resuscitation, the pupils were enlarged and she died 25 hr after resuscitation. CONCLUSION: Gas embolism is a rare complication of hysteroscopy. The procedure should be performed with monitoring of blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation and end-tidal CO2 concentration.
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ranking = 0.38358482270753
keywords = ventricle
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4/100. Sudden death and cerebral anoxia in a young woman with congenital ostial stenosis of the left main coronary artery.

    We report a 36-year-old woman with ventricular fibrillation, subsequent sudden clinical cardiac death, and a prolonged brain anoxia. After a successful resuscitation coronary angiography revealed congenital ostial left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis. Surgical anastomosis of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to LAD led to a complete recovery. Postoperative electrophysiological examination, mainly programmed ventricular stimulation, failed to excite any rhythm disturbances. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 48:67-70, 1999.
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5/100. Case report of a patient with an intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary trunk presenting as a pulmonary embolism.

    A fatal case of an 89-year-old woman with an intimal sarcoma obstructing the pulmonary trunk and an open foramen ovale is presented. Clinical symptoms, physical examination and further evaluation originally raised suspicion of a pulmonary embolism. Recent classification systems, specific radiological and pathological characteristics of sarcomas of the pulmonary trunk are discussed.
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ranking = 0.043322096679075
keywords = foramen
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6/100. Successful resuscitation of a verapamil-intoxicated patient with percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience with the use of percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass as a therapy for cardiac arrest in an adult patient intoxicated with verapamil. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Emergency department of a university hospital. PATIENT: A patient with cardiac arrest after severe verapamil intoxication. INTERVENTIONS: Percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass and theophylline therapy. CASE REPORT: A 41-yr-old white male had taken 4800-6400 mg of verapamil in a suicide attempt. On arrival of the ambulance physician, the patient was conscious with weak palpable pulses and was transported to a nearby hospital. The patient developed a pulseless electrical activity, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was started. Despite all advanced life support efforts, the patient remained in cardiac arrest. Therefore, he was transferred under ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation to our department, where percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass was initiated immediately (2.5 hrs after cardiac arrest). The first verapamil serum concentration obtained at admittance to our institution was 630 ng/mL. After several ineffective intravenous epinephrine applications, the administration of 0.48 g of theophylline as an intravenous bolus 6 hrs and 18 mins after cardiac arrest led to the return of spontaneous circulation. The patient remained stable and was transferred to an intensive care unit the same day. He woke up on the 12th day and was extubated on the 18th day. After transfer to a neuropsychiatric rehabilitation hospital, he recovered totally. CONCLUSION: In patients with cardiac arrest attributable to massive verapamil overdose, percutaneous extracorporeal cardiopulmonary bypass can provide adequate tissue perfusion and sufficient cerebral oxygen supply until the drug level is reduced and restoration of spontaneous circulation can be achieved.
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keywords = cerebral
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7/100. Visual hallucinations in recovery from cortical blindness: imaging correlates.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cerebral metabolic and functional patterns during recovery from cortical blindness. DESIGN: Follow-up study with serial clinical, metabolic, and functional imaging and visual evoked potentials. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old woman suffered from cortical blindness after cardiac arrest and recovered over a 6-month period. During recovery, she experienced complex visual hallucinations that could be initiated by visual imagery. RESULTS: Initially, the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was severely reduced in the visual and parieto-occipital cortex bilaterally but recovered almost completely. Visual hallucinations led to significant increases of the regional cerebral blood flow in the initially severely hypometabolic parieto-occipital and temporo-lateral cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Recovery of vision was related to normalization of the postlesionally dysfunctional cortex. Visual hallucinations appeared as the clinical correlate of the electrophysiological hyperexcitability of the recovering partially damaged visual cortex.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = cerebral
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8/100. Clinical experience with cerebral oximetry in stroke and cardiac arrest.

    OBJECTIVE: To address the ability and reliability of the INVOS 3100A (Somanetics, Troy, MI) cerebral oximeter to detect cerebral desaturation in patients and the interpretation of cerebral oximetry measurements using the INVOS 3100A in stroke and cardiac arrest. DESIGN: case reports of two patients. SETTING: Neurologic intensive care Unit of a University Hospital. patients: Two patients suffering occlusive strokes of the middle cerebral artery. One later suffered a cardiac arrest. RESULTS: The first case, a patient who suffered cardiac arrest while undergoing continuous cerebral oximetry, clearly demonstrated the ability of the INVOS 3100A to detect rapid tissue vascular oxyhemoglobin desaturation in the brain during circulatory arrest. In the second case, oximetry readings were obtained in a patient with a right internal carotid artery occlusion and an infarct in the middle cerebral artery territory. The circulation of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory was intact. Stable xenon-computed tomography of local cerebral blood flow showed no perfusion in the infarct, and oximetry readings were between 60 and 65. In the border zone between the middle cerebral artery and the ACA, readings of 35 to 40 were obtained, and over the ACA territory, the readings were in the 60s. CONCLUSIONS: oximetry by near infrared spectroscopy reflects the balance between regional oxygen supply and demand. In dead or infarcted nonmetabolizing brain, saturation may be near normal because of sequestered cerebral venous blood in capillaries and venous capacitance vessels and contribution from overlying tissue. In regionally or globally ischemic, but metabolizing brain, saturation decreases because oxygen supply is insufficient to meet metabolic demand. These observations are supported by previously reported "normal" readings in unperfused or dead brains.
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ranking = 7
keywords = cerebral
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9/100. Core cooling after hypoxia and ischaemia.

    Two patients sustained severe circulatory inadequacy before and during thoracotomy for coronary surgery. Both patients were promptly cote cooled to between 20 degrees and 25 degrees C. After coronary surgery, each patient was rewarmed and the operation was terminated uneventfully in each case, No important cerebral deficit was apparent despite periods of circulatory insufficiency and arrest which were well beyond the usually accepted limits. It is suggested that prompt core cooling may exert a protective effect in this context.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = cerebral
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10/100. Traumatic asphyxia complicated by unwitnessed cardiac arrest.

    We report a case of traumatic asphyxia complicated by unwitnessed cardiac arrest in which the patient has made a good, functional recovery. Traumatic asphyxia is an uncommon clinical syndrome usually occurring after chest compression. Associated physical findings include subconjunctival hemorrhage and purple-blue neck and face discoloration. These facial changes can mimic those seen with massive closed head injury; however, cerebral injury after traumatic asphyxia usually occurs due to cerebral hypoxia. When such features are observed, the diagnosis of traumatic asphyxia should be considered. Prompt treatment with attention to the reestablishment of oxygenation and perfusion may result in good outcomes.
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